GUTAKAZA UBWIGENGE, KUBUSUBIRANA NO KONGERA KWIYOBORA NABI

Prosper Bamara

U Rwanda rumaze imyaka myinshi rubayeho nk’igihugu gifite ubwigenge mu miyoborere y’abaturage bacyo. Rwatangiye ari agahugu gato cyane, Urwanda rwa Gasabo, kayobowe n’Umwami, kakaba ubwami bwe. Ubwo bwami muri rusange bwagiye buhererekanywa mu muryango w’abami, umwami agasimburwa n’umukomokaho cyangwa se uwa hafi mu bo mu muryango we iyo yabaga nta mwana yibarutse, nk’uko bigenda ahandi henshi hari imiyoborere y’Ubwami. Umuryango w’abanyiginya niwo wiganje cyane kandi mu gihe kirekire kingana n’imyaka ishobora kuba irenga magana atanu. Umwamikazi nawe ntiyavaga mu miryango yose, ahubwo hariho imiryango izwi yatangaga abamikazi n’abagabekazi. Umwami ntiyayoboraga wenyine kuko Umugabekazi, aliwe Nyina wemewe n’amategeko, ntibyavugaga ko agomba kuba nyina umubyara mu nda, nawe yabaga afite ububasha bwinshi mu buyobozi bwo hejuru bw’igihugu, ndetse hari abemeza ko Umwami atamurushaga ijambo cyane. Umwamikazi ntiyagaragaraga mu miyoborere y’igihugu mu buryo buzwi. Ako gahugu gato, Urwanda rwa Gasabo, kagiye kaguka buhoro buhoro, bikozwe n’Umwami wayoboraga u Rwanda, hanyuma icyitwaga Urwanda rwa Gasabo kiza kuba Urwanda Rugari, alibyo bivuga Urwanda rwagutse, ndetse tukaba tutatinya kuvuga ko alirwo dufite ubungubu. Ntirukiri Urwanda rwa Gasabo, ahubwo rwaragutse ruba Urwanda Rugari

Ubwo bwigenge twavuze Urwanda rwaje kubwamburwa by’igice igihe abitwa abakoloni b’Abadage binjiye mu miyoborere bagasa n’abafatanyije n’Umwami w’umunyiginya kuyobora igihugu cye. Hanyuma aho abadage batsindiwe intambara y’isi, bwa bwigenge noneho bwaje gutakazwa burundu n’igihugu cy’Umwami, kuko byabayeho ko rushyirwa mu biganza by’Igihugu cy’Ububirigi n’Urugaga rw’Ibihugu (League des Nations / League of Nations), ngo kibere u Rwanda nk’umurezi ugomba kuruherekeza mu mibereho no mu kwishakisha kuzageza rubonye ubwigenge. Ni muli icyo gihe cy’ababirigi, Umwami w’u Rwanda yirukanywe mu gihugu cye, ni muli icyo gihe kandi Umwami w’u Rwanda yaguye mu mahanga azize urupfu rutarasobanuka kugeza ubu, kandi ni muli ibyo bihe Umwami w’u Rwanda yahuye n’ibihe bikomeye by’impinduka, ubuyobozi buva mu Bwami bugahinduka Repubulika, bikaza kumuviramo guhunga igihugu cye, akaba yararinze agwa mu mu mahanga. 

Nyuma yaho, u Rwanda rwasubiranye ubwigenge ku mugaragaro, abanyarwanda benshi biganjemo abo mu bwoko bw’abahutu babigizemo uruhare. Icyari gishishikaje abenshi mu baharaniraga impinduka mu miyoborere, kwari ukureba ko Umwami yakwemera gushyikirana no gusangira ubutegetsi. Hanyuma haje kubaho kwifuza ko Ingoma y’Ubwami yavaho, igasimbuzwa Repubulika, aho Umutegetsi w’Igihugu ashobora kujya ava mu muryango uwo aliwo wose w’Abanyarwanda, bitabaye ko habaho umuryango umwe gusa utanga Umukuru w’Igihugu. Ibyo byaje kugerwaho, abanyarwanda benshi barabyishimira n’ubwo atari bose kuko hari abari bagitsimbaraye ku kugumishaho Umwami w’ububasha bwose ku gihugu no ku banyagihugu. Byaje kurangira abifuzaga Repubulika batsinze, Ubwigenge bwaremejwe hanyuma buza gutangazwa ku mugaragaro ku italiki ya mbere Nyakanga 1962. 

Uko byifuzwaga aliko siko byagenze. Kuko, bimwe mu byanengwaga ingoma y’ubwami, ni ukuba abo mu bwoko bw’abahutu bari barahejwe mu buyobozi bw’igihugu no mu kugira ijambo mu miyoborere. Ndetse ibi abaharaniraga impinduka, bakwiye kubishimirwa kuko batahwemaga kugaragaza ko byagombye guhinduka, abahutu nabo bagahabwa ijambo kimwe n’abatutsi, hanyuma abana b’Urwanda bose bakayobora igihugu cyabo nta busumbane. Byari byiza, aliko icyabyishe ni uko bamwe mu bahutu bumvise ubutumwa nabi. Bumvise ko kuvanaho Ubwami no guha Abahutu ijambo mu gihugu cyabo, bisobanuye kwigobotora abatutsi no kwicara aho bari bicaye noneho bakabakandamiza bakigarurira byose. Mu bundi buryo twavuga ko hari abumvaga ko Ubwigenge ali icyo umuntu yakwita ”vamo-njyemo”.

Nyuma y’igihe gito, bamwe mu batutsi bari barahungiye hanze, bari biganjemo cyane abahoze mu nda y’ingoma, bakabamo n’abahutu bacye bari barahunganye nabo, bariyegeranyije bagerageza gukora ibitero bya gisilikali bashaka guhirika ubutegetsi bwariho, bibumbiye mu muryango bise INYENZI, mu magambo arambuye « Ingangurarugo Yahariwe kuba Ingenzi ». Ibyo bitero ntibyabahiriye kuko baje gutsindwa iyo ntambara nyuma yo kugerageza kenshi, maze baza kuyireka burundu.

Mu mwaka w’1973, bamwe mu basilikali bakuru b’igihugu biganjemo abakomokaga mu majyaruguru, banenze iyo myitwarire y’ubutegetsi bwariho, ariko bafite n’irari ry’ubutegetsi, maze bakora kudeta. Kubers iryo rari,  nabo ntibakemuye ikibazo, ahubwo bafashe abahutu baje kwitwa abanyanduga (abo mu majyepfo) babomeka ku batutsi, maze kwigizayo abanyagihugu birakomeza bisingira n’igice kimwe kandi kinini cy’abahutu. Aha birumvikana ko kwa guheza igice kimwe cy’abanyarwanda mu miyoborere bamwe bagayiraga Umwami, byakomeje na nyuma ye bikagenda bifata indi ntera.

Nyuma y’imyaka myinshi, abatutsi bari barahungiye hanze baje guhabwa imbaraga n’uruhare bagize mu ntambara y’ukwibohoza yo mu Buganda, aho bafashije Umukuru w’icyo gihugu kugera ku butegetsi binyuze mu ntambara. Bariyegeranyije rero bakora umuryango bise RANU, waje gukomera maze uhabwa izina rya FPR-Inkotanyi mu mwaka w’1987. Abatangije uyu muryango bisunganye n’abandi batutsi bali mu bindi bihugu harimo n’abari mu Rwanda hagati, birumvikana ko harimo n’abahutu bacye bagendaga binjiramo, maze batangira intambara mu Kwakira 1990, batangaza ko bifuza gukuraho akarengane cyane cyane akakorerwaga ubwoko bw’abatutsi. Muli Nyakanga 1994, bafashe ubutegetsi kandi banafashijwe n’amwe mu mashyaka yo mu gihugu imbere yarwanyaga ubutegetsi bwariho. Ikibabaje nabo ntibashoboye gukosora amenshi mu makosa baregaga ubutegetsi bwababanjirije. Ikindi cyagaragaye ni uko hejuru y’ivangura ryari risanzweho hagati y’abahutu n’abatutsi no hagati y’abakiga n’abanyanduga (mu bwoko bw’abahutu) ryari risanzweho, hadutse n’irindi vangura rikomeye (mu bwoko bw’abatutsi) rishingiye ku gihugu umuntu yakuriyemo cyangwa se yavukiyemo, ndetse rikaba rimaze kumunga bikomeye imiyoborere y’igihugu. 

Icyo twakura muli ibi bihe bikomeye igihugu cyanyuzemo no mu byo twakomeje kubona kugeza uyu munsi wa none mu mitegekere y’Igihugu cy’u Rwanda, ni uko impamvu zikomeye kurusha izindi zatumye habaho amakimbirane n’ibibazo by’urudaca bitaracogora na n’ubu, ali izi: Ukutajya inama n’abanyagihugu bose / Ukwanga imishyikirano cyangwa ukuyivangamo uburiganya n’amananiza / Ubwiyemezi / Irari ry’ubutegetsi / Ubushake bucye bwo gusangira ibyiza by’igihugu / Inzika / Ivanguramoko / Ugusuzugura amategeko / Ugusuzugura impanuro z’abahanzi n’abahanuzi / Ukubuza amahoro n’Uguhotora abahanzi n’abahanuzi / Ugushyira imbaraga mu gupfobya amateka n’Ukubuza ukuri kuvugwa. Indi mbogamizi itarigeze ikurwaho kuva Urwanda rwabaho kugeza kuri uyu munsi wa none, ni uko abayobozi ba roho batigeze batandukanywa n’ubutegetsi ngo bahabwe ubwigenge mu kuyobora roho z’abanyagihugu. Mu gihe cy’ubwami hariho icyakwitwa ”idini-leta”, naho nyuma muri repubulika ubu kuri uyu munsi wa none hari icyo twakwita ”idini-ngwate ya leta”. 

Murakoze

P. Bamara

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