Ivuka rya demokarasi mu Rwanda: Ku wa 28 Mutarama 1961

Yanditswe na Jean Serge Mandela

“Turate twogeze Demokarasi

Imaze gushinga imizi mu Rwanda”

Iyo ni imwe mu ndirimbo yaramutsaga benshi muli “Mukanguke burakeye” ya Radio Rwanda ku munsi wa 28 Mutarama, igihe ubutegetsi bwa repubulika ya 2 bwongeye gusubiza ku rutonde y’iminsi  ngarukamwaka kandi nyibutsa mateka uyu munsi. Ni nabwo kandi ishyirahamwe ry’umupira w’amaboko bita volley  ryashizeho igikombe  bitiriye demokarasi maze umukino wa nyuma ukaba ku wa 28 Mutarama.

Aliko se uwo munsi wavutse ute?

Nkuko inama  rusange ya 15 y’umuryango w’abibumbye, ONU, yali yarateranye ku wa 20 Ukuboza 1960, umwe mu  myanzuro yayo wa no 1579  uvuga ku  Rwanda-Urundi yateganyaga  gushyiraho  akanama kihariye kazakurikiranira hafi inama rukukoma izabanziriza amatora,kuyategura no kuyayobora hanyuma  kakazatanga inyandiko mvugo y’iyo milimo yose. Gusa Ostende mu Bubiligi mu mpera  z’Ukuboza kwa 1960,  haje kuba ibindi biganiro aho amashyaka amwe n’amwe yerekanye impugenge yali atewe n’ibyo byemezo.

Nyuma y’ibiganiro bya Ostende,uwali  ministre u’uwubugengagihugu Yohani Batista Rwasibo nibwo yatumije inama y’ababurugumestiri n’abakonseyi igaterana ku wa gatandatu 28 Mutarama1961 I Gitarama.

Igihe inama yinikije  nibwo Yozefu Gitera, wali umuyobozi w’inama y’ u Rwanda (President du Conseil Rwanda) yahagarutse agafata ijambo agira ati: “Karinga irasheshwe kandi ubutegetsi wa Kigeli wa V Ndahindurwa burangiriye aha”  nibwo yerekanye ibendera ry’u Rwanda rigizwe n’amabara y’umutuku,umuhondo n’icyatsi. Arangiza agira ati: “Harakabaho repubulika” maze rubanda ruyifatira hejuru ruhita rumwikiriza. Ubwo hakurikiyeho amatora nibwo Dominiko Mbonyumutwa wa Parmehutu yabonye amaji 2391 bivuga 83 ku ijana by’abatoye. Hakurikiyeho amatoya y’abadepite maze Parmehutu yegukana imyanya 40 n’aho Aporosoma yegukana imyanya 4. Inama  y’abadepite nibwo yatoye Gitera Yozefu kuyibera umuyobozi wungirijwe na Lazare Mpakaniye wa Parmehutu.  Kuli uwo mugoroba, nibwo ministre w’intebe Gregoire Kayibanda nibwo  yatangaje abagize guverinoma alibo aba:

– Ministri  w’intebe n’uw’uburezi:  Gerigori Kayibanda,

– ministri wu’ubugengagihugu: Yohani Batista Rwasibo,

– ministri w’ubuhinzi: Balitazari Bicamumpaka,

– Ministri w’imibereho myiza n’impunzi:   Jacques Hakizumwami,

–  Ministri wa tekiniki: Tewodori Sindikubwabo,

– Ministri w’ubukungu: Kalisti Habamenshi,

– Ministri w’imali: Gaspari Cyimana,

– Ministri w’ubutabera: Anastase Makuza,

– Ministri w’ububanyi n’amahanga: Aloys Munyangaju na Germain Gasingwa,

– Ministry w’ingabo: Isidore Sebazungu.

Nibwo ubuyobozi bw’urukiko rwi’ikirenga bweguriwe Isidore Nzeyimana wungirijwe na ba: Daniel Shamukiga, Claver Ndahayo,Narisisi Sakerere na Faranswa Ackerman.

Perezida Mbonyumutwa nibwo kandi yatangaje ko u Rwanda rubaye igihugu kigenga kandi kikagendera ku matwaya ya demokarasi, ko abanyarwanda bose bareshya imbera y’amategeko nta vangura rishyingiye ku ibara ry’uruhu, ubwoko cg se iyobokamana.

Kuki se ubwami bwaba bwarasheswe:

Ahagana mu mpera z’ikinyejana cya 19, inkuru y’umwana isubire inyuma, ubwo  Kanjogera abwiye Makabuza wali woherejwe na Muhigirwa  ngo amushyire amaturo alicyo kimenyetso cyo kuyoboka ati: “ubwo abega bafite ubwami nta munyiginya uzarokoka”. Ibi nibyo byajemo kuva mo iyicwa rya Mibabwe wa IV Rutarindwa alibyo bamwe baje kwita “Ibyacikiye ku Rucunshu” aho umwami wimitswe yishwe n’abe ndetse  agapfana n’abamwe mu biru bakuru. Ibyali ubwiru ko “umwami avukana imbuto” byahise biba impuha kuko Yuhi waV Musinga wamusimbuye yali yambuye ubwami “uwavukanye imbuto”.

Ibi byahuririnye  nuko mu museso w’ikinyejana cya 20, alibwo abamisiyoneri bayobowe na Pere Brard baje kwita Terebura  basesekaye ibwami basaba ko bakwigisha  iyobokamana. Nibwo bahawe ikibanza bashinga misiyoni ya Save batangira kwigisha iyobokamana, muli uwo mwaka hashinzwe kandi na misiyoni ya Nyundo ndetse na Zaza.

Kuli za misiyoni niho rubanda yigishijwe ko Imana ariyo yaremye abantu kandi ko abantu bose bangana imbere y’Imana.  Amashuli yigisha iyobokamana, ndetse n’ubundi mu bumenyi aba arashinjwe alimo ishuri ry’indatwa i Butare bita ishuli ry’abashariti kuko ryatangijwe na “freres de la charite” ariryo ryaje kuvamo “Urwunge rw’amashuli rwa Butare” Amaseminali aba aratangijwe aliho benshi batangiye kwiga uko abaromani n’abagereki bikijije ubwami maze bagashinga za “repubulika” na “demokarasi” bivuga ubutegetsi bwa rubanda kandi bushyizweho na rubanda.

Mu mpera za 1940, nibwo Yuhi wa V Musinga yaje gucirirwa ishyanga n’ubutegetsi bwa gikolonize kuko batashoboye kwumvikana maze bamusimbuza umuhungu we Mutara wa III Rudahigwa nawe waje gupfa (muli 1959) atabyaye uzamuzungura maze asimburwa na murumuna we Kigeli wa V Ndahindurwa nawe wakiriwe n’impinduramatwara yo ku wa 1 Ugushyingo ubwo insoresore za Lunari zasagariye umurwanashyaka wa Parmehutu aliwe Dominique Mbonyumutwa avuye mu misa yizihiza umunsi mukuru w’abatagatifu mu Byimana.

N’ubwo Mutara Rudahigwa yali yagerageje kugabanya ukunyunyuzwa no gupyinagazwa kwa rubanda nyamwishi akuraho ubuhake ndetse agategeka ko abagaragu bagabana ibikingi na ba shebuja, rubanda nyamwinshi ihangajwe n’amashyaka alimo Parmehutu yali yaracengeje amatwara muli rubanda ibyiza by’ubutegetsi bushyingiye kuli demokarasi ko rubanda ariyo yihitiramo abayobozi kandi ikabamo n’abo bayobozi binyuze mu matora.

Demokarasi mu Rwanda rw’uyu munsi

Kuva aho RPF yaje irasa abaturage ngo izanye demokarasi, nta demokarasi iba mu Rwanda igihe amatora n’ibizayavamo biba bizwi mbereho imyaka itanu y’uko ayo amatora aba.

Harakabaho demokarasi ku bayikunda kandi umunsi mwiza w’ivuka rya demokarasimu Rwanda

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