MUTARA III RUDAHIGWA

Umwami Mutara III Rudahigwa Karoli Lewoni Petero.

 Mutara III Rudahirwa (03.1911 – 24.07/1959) – Yabaye umwami w’uRwanda kuva mu mwaka w’1931 kugeza mu mwaka w’1959. Yasimbuye ku ngoma se Yuhi V Musinga wanyazwe ingoma n’abakoloni b’ababiligi. Yasimbuwe ku ngoma na mwenese Kigeri V Ndahindurwa wimye ingoma iminsi itatu gusa nyuma y’urupfu rwa Rudahigwa. Rudahigwa yabaye umwami ku bushake bw’abakoloni n’abapadiri bera. Aba kandi bakomeje kumukurikiranira hafi bamufasha kuyobora u Rwanda uko babyifuzaga.

Rudahigwa Karoli Lewoni Petero yavukiye i Nyanza muri Werurwe 1911. Ni umwana w’imfura w’Umwami Yuhi wa V Musinga na Nyiramavugo Kankazi Radegonda. Nkuko Musenyeri Bakuzimihigo Kizito(1) abivuga, akiri muto Rudahigwa yahuye n’ingorane z’uko nyina yabaye intabwa, maze abaho mu bukene bukomeye ku Rwesero rwa Muhazi.

Rudahigwa yize amashuri abanza n’ayisumbuye mu ishuri ry’abana b’abatware i Nyanza.
Kuva muri 1929 yagizwe umutware wa Nduga na Marangara. Mutara III yimitswe ku ngoma na Guverineri Voisin afatanyije na Musenyeri Leon Classe ku wa 16 Ugushyingo 1931, Se Yuhi IV Musinga amaze gukurwa ku ngoma kuwa 12 Ugushyingo 1931 agacirirwa i Kamembe.

Kuwa 15 Ukwakira 1933, Rudahigwa yashakanye na Nyiramakomali. Baje gutana nyuma y’uko Nyiramakomali amaze gukuramo inda kabiri.  Kuwa 13 Mutarama 1942  Rudahigwa yashakanye na Rosaliya Gicanda, wamubereye umugore wa kabiri, ariko nawe ntibabyaranye.

Ku wa 17 Ukwakira 1943, Rudahigwa yabatijwe na Musenyeri Léon Classe, yitwa Karoli Lewoni Petero. Aya mazina ngo yakomotse kuri Gouverneur wa Ruanda-Urundi witwaga Charles Voisin, Musenyeri wa Vicariat ya Kabgayi witwaga Leon Classe na Gouverneur General wa Congo Mbiligi na Ruanda-Urundi witwaga Pierre Ryckmans ari nawe wabyaye umwami muri batisimu. Yabatirijwe rimwe n’umugabekazi Nyiramavugo Kankazi, bamwita Radegonda.

Kugeza mu mwaka w’1950 Umwami Mutara wa III Rudahigwa yakoze politiki yo kumvikana na Kiliziya Gatolika na Leta Mbiligi, kugeza n’aho atuye Kristu Umwami ingoma z’u Rwanda i Nyanza ku munsi wa Kristu Umwami ku wa 27 Ukwakira 1946. Mu mwaka w’1949, Umwami Rudahigwa yasuye Uburayi ubwa mbere, agera i Buruseli mu Bubiligi, ndetse ashobora no kujya mu Budage.

Kuva mu mwaka w’1950 Umwami Mutara wa III Rudahigwa yaharaniye kurushaho guteza imbere imibereho y’Abanyarwanda no gusubirana ubwigenge bw’u Rwanda. Rudahigwa yaranzwe no kurwanya akarengane mu butabera abigaragariza mu Rukiko rw’Umwami no mu mirimo ya buri munsi aho yirirwaga arenganura abaturage cyane cyane abatobato.

Rudahigwa yitaye cyane ku bujijuke bw’Abanyarwanda: ashinga Fonds Mutara, asaba abayezuwiti gushinga Koleji i Gatagara, bayijyana i Bujumbura muri 1956, iba Collège Interracial du Saint Esprit, ashinga Ishuri ry’Abayisilamu ku Ntwari i Nyamirambo, ashinga za Ecoles Laïques, ashinga Ishuri ry’Abenemutara ry’i Kanyanza, agura ikibanza kinini ubu cyubatsemo Ambassade y’u Rwanda i Buruseli, agamije ko hazajya hacumbika abanyarwanda baje kwiga i Burayi.

Mutara wa III yatangiye impinduramatwara muri politiki, akuraho ubuhake muri 1954, akuraho inkuke zakamirwaga Umwami yishakira ize bwite, akuraho imirimo y’agahato yitwaga uburetwa. Gukuraho ubuhake byamuteranyije na bamwe mu bashefu bakuru batashakaga ko buvaho, kandi yabategekaga no kugabana inka zabo n’abagaragu babo.

Mu mwaka w’1957(2), hamaze gusohoka inyandiko zikarishye imwe yatangajwe n’Inama Nkuru y’Igihugu yari igenewe umuryango w’abibumbye(3), n’indi yanditswe n’impirimbanyi za demokarasi z’abahutu nayo yari igenewe umuryango w’abibumbye hamwe n’ababiligi(4), abatutsi b’abahezanguni basabye umwami Rudahigwa kwica Gitera.  Bivugwa ko we ngo yabasabye kwica igitera Gitera kuba arwanya umwami aho kwica Gitera ubwe.

Nyuma y’uko ziriya nyandiko imwe itangajwe n’Inama Nkuru y’Igihugu indi itangajwe n’impirimbanyi zo kurenganura abahutu, umwami Rudahigwa yashyizeho komisiyo yo kwiga ku kibazo cy’abahutu n’abatutsi mu gihugu. Umwanzuro w’iyo komisiyo wabaye kwemeza ko nta kibazo abahutu n’abatutsi bafitanye, kuko ntacyo bapfana.

Kuwa 24 Nyakanga 1959(5) Umwami w’u Rwanda Mutara III Rudahigwa yagiye I Bujumbura yitabye ubutumire bwaje nka telegramme.  Uwohereje iyo telegramu ntiyamenyekanye.

Umwami yasize bagenzi be agiye guhura n’umuganga we. Bizwi ko uwo muganga yamuteye urushinge ngo rwa penicelline umwami agahita apfa. Inama Nkuru y’Igihugu yize ku kibazo cy’uko hamenyekana neza impamvu yatumye umwami apfa, iza gufata umwanzuro w’uko iryo suzuma ridakorwa ku bwiganze bw’amajwi 19 kuri 7. Umwamikazi yari yifuje ko iryo suzumwa ritakorwa.

Kubera ko Rudahigwa nta mwna yagiraga wamusimbura ku ngoma, abiru bemeje ko asimburwa na mwenese Ndahindurwa mwene Musinga na Mukashema wavukiye i Kamembe kuwa 29 Kamena 1936. Yimiye i Mwima ubwo bari mu muhango wo gushyingura umwami Rudahigwa, afata izina ry’ubwami rya Kigeli V Ndahindurwa.  Uyu Kigeri V Ndahindurwa yimye yemera kuba umwami ugendera kw’itegeko nshinga, gusa abahezanguni b’abatutsi bakoze ibishoboka byose kugira ngo atumvikana n’impirimbanyi za demokarasi, bikaba byaratumye habaho revolisiyo yaciye ubwami mu Rwanda igashyiraho repubulika. 

Byanditswe na

Maniragena Valensi
Nzeyimana Ambrozi

 

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 (1) Kizito Bakuzimihigo: Mutara III Rudahigwa, uwatuye u Rwanda Kristu Umwami. Palotti Presse. Kigali 2013. (184 pages)

(2)Marcel Pochet: Retrospective le probleme ruandais 1952-1962. Ed. Sources du Nil  2012 (pp 23-30, pp 53-58).

(3) Inyandiko izwi  ku nyito “Mise au point” yanditswe muri Gashyantare 1957.

(4) Inyandiko izwi ku nyito “Manifeste des bahutu” yanditswe kuwa 24 Werurwe 1957.

(5) http://murengerantwari.unblog.fr/2012/06/13/special-50-ans-dindependance-kigeli-v-lhomme-de-la-situation/ derniere visite 04 Aout 2018  a 11h.00 

 

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