Umwanya w’Ubwoko mu Mishyikirano ku Isangira ry’Ubutegetsi mu Rwanda (draft 1)

Seburanga Jean Leonard

Banyarwandakazi, banyarwanda, nshuti z’u Rwanda,

Dutangaje ku mugaragaro umushinga (draft) w’inyandiko igaragagaza impamvu ishyaka DEMOCRATIC ALLIANCE ritekereza ko ubwoko bukwiye kugira umwanya bukwiye mu mishyikirano ku isangira ry’ubutegetsi mu Rwanda.

Dushimiye abagize uruhare mu itegurwa ryawo, abazadusangiza ibitekerezo bawufiteho n’abazadufasha mu kuwunononsora.

Bikorewe i Liège, ku itariki ya 22/08/2018

Seburanga Jean Leonard

Perezida

Democratic Alliance

Tel: +32465337114

E-mail: seburanga@yahoo.fr

UMWANYA W’UBWOKO MU MISHYIKIRANO KU ISANGIRA RY’UBUTEGETSI MU RWANDA (DRAFT 1)

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No one is allowed to say…the old tension between Hutus & Tutsis is still there, beneath the surface. But it is.” –tweet by KENNETH ROTH, Executive Director, Human Rights Watch (August 5, 2017).

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Hashize imyaka makumyabiri n’itanu amasezerano y’amahoro y’i Arusha ashyizweho umukono. Kuzirikana ku byiza byari biyakubiyemo bizahora ari ingenzi, cyane cyane ku bantu bifuza kuyubakiraho bategura ejo hazaza heza h’u Rwanda. Ku rundi ruhande ariko ni ngombwa kuzirikana ku nenge zagaragaye muri ayo masezerano, ari zo zishobora kuba zaratumye adashyirwa mu bikorwa kandi zigatuma icyizere cy’isangira ry’ubutegetsi kiyoyoka. Iyi nyandiko, iribanda ku ngaruka mbi zo kudaha ubwoko umwanya ukwiye, ni ukuvuga kudaha ubwoko umwanya ku rugero rungana n’urwo bufite muri politiki nyarwanda.

MU MIZI Y’IKIBAZO

Mu bihereranye n’ubwiganze bw’abagize ubwoko runaka, umuryango nyarwanda uteye ku buryo, mu gihugu (1) kirangwamo imitekerereze y’uko ubwoko busumbana (ethnic supremacism) (2) kandi kirangwa no kuba abantu baba biteze ko amatora azakorwa mu buryo butonesha abakandida bahuje ubwoko n’abatora,

(I) hari abanyapoliki bumva bafite icyizere cyo gutsinda amatora bitewe nubwiganze bwabo bahuje ubwoko na bo, mu gihe abandi bo, bashingiye ku buke bwabo bahuje ubwoko na bo, baba batizeye kuyatsinda:

(1) Perezida Grégoire Kayibanda n’abo bari bafatanyije ni rumwe mu ngero z’abanyapolitiki bashyize imbere ubwoko bwabo mu gushaka amajwi. Bageze ku butegetsi binyuriye mu matora kandi bakomeza kwiringira ko bazabugumishwaho na yo. N’ubwo bari biganjemo abanyapolitiki bo mu karere ka Nduga, ntibyababujije gushyira ubuyobozi bw’ingabo n’inzego z’umutekano z’igihugu mu maboko ya ba ofisiye (officiers) bakomoka mu kandi karere kubera ko bari biringiye ko ubutegetsi buzakomeza gutangwa na rubanda binyuriye mu matora. Hari abemeza ko ibyo babitewe n’igitekerezo cyari cyogeye cy’uko abanyarwanda bo mu bwoko runaka barushanya ubushobozi bwo gusohoza inshingano runaka neza bitewe n’akarere bakomokamo, bityo bakaba barishyiraga mu cyiciro cy’abafite ubushobozi bwo gukora politiki kurusha ubwo gusohoza inshingano za gisirikare.

(2) Mu ntangiriro y’imyaka ya za 1990, abari bibumbiye mu mashyaka ya opozisiyo ya kidemokarasi (MDR, PSD, PL, PDC…) ni urundi rugero rw’abaharaniye impinduka mu butegetsi badakoresheje ingufu za gisirikare.

(II) hari abanyapoliki bumva bafite icyizere cyo kugera ku butegetsi bishingikirije ku zindi mbaraga zidashingiye ku bwinshi bwababashyigikiye:

(1) Umwami Kigeli Ndahindurwa yakoresheje inzira y’urugomo mu kugundira ubutegetsi.

(2) Ishyaka rya UNAR (Union Nationale Rwandaise) na ryo ryakoresheje inzira y’urugomo mu guhirimbanira ubutegetsi.

(3) Perezida Habyarimana Juvénal n’abasangiragendo be (camarades du 5 juillet) na bo bayobotse inzira y’urugomo (coup d’état), bafashijwe n’ingabo z’igihugu zari ziganjemo ba ofisiye (officiers) bakomoka mu karere avukamo.

(4) Ishyaka FPR (Front Patriotique Rwandais) na ryo ryahisemo kugera ku butegetsi rikoresheje inzira y’urugomo, rishyigikiwe n’ingabo zaryo zari zariyise APR (Armée Patriotique Rwandaise), zari ziyobowe na ba ofisiye (officiers) biganjemo abo mu bwoko bw’abatutsi.

BASINYE AMASEZERANO BATANYUZWE

(I) Amasezerano yi Arusha yo mu w1993 yasinywe mu gihe impande zombi zari zishyamiranye mu ntambara, ni ukuvuga ishyaka MRND ryari ku butegetsi niryaburwanyaga rikoresheje intwaro za gisirikare (FPR), zitari zizeye kuzaguma ku butegetsi nyuma yamatora yari ateganyijwe mu mpera zinzibacyuho:

(1) Kubera ko ishyaka rya MRND ryari riyoboye u Rwanda mu buryo butari ubwa kidemokarasi byahaye ishyaka FPR urwitwazo ribyuririraho ryegura intwaro mu kwakira 1990 riraburwanya. Ariko, guhera mu w’1991, ubwo ishyaka MRND ryakomoreraga abatavuga rumwe na bwo rikemera politiki y’amashyaka menshi, impamvu imwe muri ebyiri FPR yari yarashingiyeho intambara yayo (ari zo kuzana demokarasi no gucyura impunzi) yavuyeho. Mu w’1993, amasezerano y’amahoro y’i Arusha yasubije ikibazo cy’impunzi, ari na cyo FPR yari isigaye yishingikirijeho, bityo FPR iba itakaje impamvu yayo ya nyuma mu zo yari isanzwe yitwaza mu gusobanura intambara yari yarashoyemo abanyarwanda. Kubera ko abanyapolitiki b’imena ba FPR bari mu cyiciro cy’abadafitiye icyizere inzira y’amahoro mu guharanira ubutegetsi, iri shyaka ryari rikeneye bikomeye indi mpamvu yatuma rikomeza intambara.

(2) Abagize uruhare mu mazeserano y’i Arusha bibeshye ku kintu cy’ingenzi: nyinshi mu mpunzi zavugaga rikijyana zari zikeneye ibirenze ibyo gutahuka mu gihugu kavukire cyazo. Zifuzaga kuzaguma ku butegetsi na nyuma y’inzubacyuho kandi ntizari zizeye kubihabwa n’amatora yari ateganyijwe mu mpera z’iyo nzibacyuho. Ibyavuye mu itora rya kamarampaka ryo mu w’1961 byari isomo batashoboraga kwibagirwa kandi ryaje gutsindagirizwa n’ibyavuye mu matora y’inzego z’ibanze yo muri zone tampo (demilitarized zone) yo mu w’1993. Mu yandi magambo, ikibazo cy’ingenzi amasezerano y’amahoro y’i Arusha yo mu w’1993 yagombaga kuba yarihatiye gusubiza cyari iki gikurikira: “ni gute abanyarwanda bo mu bwoko bwa nyamuke bari gukurirwaho impungenge zo kumva batatsinda amatora ku mpamvu zifitanye isano n’ubuke bw’abo bahuje na bo ubwoko?” Iyo abagize uruhare mu masezerano y’i Arusha yo mu w’1993 (bashishikajwe koko n’isangira ry’ubutegetsi) baba batarisobwe n’iyi ngingo, bari kuba barazirikanye ko inzibacyuho y’amezi 22 (n’ubwo yashoboraga kongerwa) itari ndende bihagije ku buryo abanyapolitiki bo mu bwoko nyamuke bari kuba bizeye ko izarangira bafite icyizere mu bijyanye n’amatora yari ateganyijwe.

(3) Abagize uruhare mu masezerano y’i Arusha yo mu w’1993 (bashishikajwe koko n’isangira ry’ubutegetsi) bibeshye ku kindi kintu cy’ingenzi: ubwoko bw’abatutsi ni nyamuke mu Rwanda mu bihereranye n’ubuto bw’umubare w’ababugize, ariko ntibivuga ko ari nyamuke no mu bihereranye n’izindi mbaraga zishobora kugeza abantu ku butegetsi bitanyuze mu matora. Uko bigaragara kubera amakuru make bari bafite kuri yi mimerere, abagize uruhare mu masezerano y’i Arusha yo mu w’1993 bakoze ikosa rikomeye ryo kudaha buri bwoko umwanya ukwiye. Mu kubigenza batyo, bahaye bamwe mu banyarwanda bo mu bwoko bw’abatutsi bari bashishikajwe no gukora politiki kuri kibi na cyiza impamvu yo kwizirika ku nzira y’intambara.

(4) Nk’abayobozi b’ishyaka ryari risobanukiwe neza imbaraga z’ikibazo cyavuzwe mu ngingo ebyiri zibanziriza iyi (ni ukuvuga umwanya w’ubwoko muri politiki nyarwanda), intagondwa za FPR zarwanyije zivuye inyuma ko ubwoko bushingirwaho mu gutegura amasezerano y’amahoro y’i Arusha yo mu w’1993, ahubwo zibukoresha mu kubiba no gukongeza urugomo rushingiye ku moko. Zabikoze zigamije guharura inzira izigeza ku butegetsi budasangiwe no kwiha impamvu yo kuvana ubwiganze bw’abagize ubwoko butari ubwazo ku rutonde rw’imbaraga zigena uko u Rwanda rutegekwa.

(5) Ishyaka MRND ryari ryubakiye kuri kudeta ya gisirikare (coup d’état) kandi rifite urubanza rw’ubwicanyi bwakorerwe abanyapolitiki b’abanyenduga. Izo mpamvu zatumye rimara imyaka irenga 15 ridashobora gufungura urubuga rwa politiki ngo ripiganwe n’abataravugaga rumwe na ryo. Kuba ryarahatiwe gufungura urubuga rwa politiki (mu w’1991) mbere y’imishyikirano yasojwe n’amasezerano y’i Arusha yo mu w’1993, byarishyize mu mimerere yatumye ritarashoboraga kwizera gutsinda amatora yari ateganyijwe mu masezerano ryari rimaze gusinya, kubera ko ayo masezerano yari yarafashije amashyaka ya opozisiyo ya kidemokarasi (cyane cyane ishyaka MDR) kugira imbaraga byagaragaraga ko zasatiraga gusumba iza MRND. Kimwe na FPR, MRND yasinye amasezerano y’amahoro y’i Arusha yo mu w’1993 itanyuzwe, ntiyayaha agaciro, ahubwo iyita ibipapuro bitagize icyo bivuze.

BAKIRANYE AMASEZERANO UBWUZU BATENGUHWA N’UBUSHOBOZI BUKE BWO KUYARINDA

Mu by’ukuri uruhande rwa opozisiyo ya kidemokarasi rwari rurangajwe imbere n’ishyaka rya MDR ni rwo rwari rwizeye kuzungukira mu masezerano y’i Arusha kubera ko yaganishaga ku matora rwibwiraga ko rurushamo abandi amahirwe. Ariko, nk’uko byari byaragenze mu mpera za repubulika ya mbere, abayobozi ba MDR batengushywe no kutagira ubushobozi bwo kuyarinda, maze birangira ubutegetsi bwegukanywe na rumwe mu mpande zitahaga agaciro demokarasi, ni ukuvuga rumwe mu mpande zitari zishishikajwe n’amatora yari kuzaba mu mpera z’inzibacyuho. Gushyira mu buryo busesuye inshingano y’umutekano w’abanyarwanda mu maboko y’ingabo za Loni cyangwa iz’igihugu cyari kuba cyiyemeje guhagararira ishyirwa mu bikorwa ry’ayo masezerano (trusteeship), byari bikenewe, muri rusange ku bw’inyungu z’abanyarwanda bari bafitiye icyizere inzira y’amahoro na demokarasi.

HAKENEWE IMISHYIKIRANO N’ANDI MASEZERANO

Nyuma y’imyaka 25 amasezerano y’amahoro y’i Arusha amaze asinywe, u Rwanda (1) ruyobowe n’ubutegetsi bw’igitugu buvangura abenegihugu rwifashishije ingabo ziyobowe na ba ofisiye (officiers) bakomoka mu bwoko bumwe. (2) Rwugarijwe n’amakimbirane akomeye hagati y’ubutegetsi buriho n’abatavuga rumwe na bwo. Hakenewe imishyikirano n’andi masezerano yazirikana ingingo zikurikira:

(I) Bitewe n’uko ishyaka FPR ryitwaye nyuma yo kugera ku butegetsi, byatanze amakuru abagize uruhare mu masezerano y’i Arusha yo mu w’1993 batari bafite: ubwoko bufite umwanya ukomeye muri politiki nyarwanda. Urugero, mu gihe abahutu bari bagize hafi 70% by’abari bari ku rutonde rw’abagombaga kuba abadepite b’inteko ishinga amategeko ishingiye ku byemeranyijweho mu masezerano y’amahoro y’i Arusha yo mu w’1993 (cfr urutonde rwo muri mutarama 1994), mu gihe cy’ubutegetsi bwa FPR ubwiganze bw’abahutu mu nteko bwagabanutse ku buryo mu w’1999 abatutsi ari bo bari bayiganjemo, ku kigero cya 52.9%. Mu buryo busa n’ubwo, mu gihe bari bagize 76.2% by’abari ku rutonde rwo muri werurwe 1994 rw’abagombaga kuba ba minisitiri bishingiye ku masezerano y’amahoro y’i Arusha yo mu w’1993, abahutu bari bahagarariwe kigero cya 59.1% gusa muri guverinoma ya mbere yashyizweho na FPR muri nyakanga 1994. Umubare w’abaminisitiri b’abahutu wakomeje kugabanuka ku buryo muri guverinoma yo mu w’2017 bari basigaye ari 27.3% gusa by’abaminisitiri bose (table 1). Ku rundi ruhande, n’ubwo amasezerano y’i Arusha yo mu w’1993 yateganyaga guhuriza hamwe (ku kigero cya 50-50% mu nzego z’ubuyobozi) ingabo za FAR (Forces Armées Rwandaises) zari ziyobowe na ba ofisiye bo mu bwoko bw’abahutu n’iza APR zari ziyobowe na ba ofisiye b’abatutsi, nyuma y’imyaka irenga makumyabiri ishyaka FPR riyobora u Rwanda, ubutegetsi bwaryo bukomeje kurangwa n’igisirikare kiyobowe na ba ofisiye bo mu bwoko bumwe, uhereye kuri bose muri barindwi bakomeye kurusha abandi: umugaba w’ikirenga (perezida wa repubulika), minisitiri w’ingabo, umunyamabanga uhoraho muri minisiteri y’ingabo, umugaba mukuru, umugaba w’izirwanira ku butaka, umugaba w’izirwanira mu kirere, umugaba w’inkeragutabara. Kubera iyo mpamvu, uyu munsi birakwiye ko abanyapolitiki bari ku butegetsi n’abatavuga rumwe na bwo kimwe n’abanyarwanda badafite aho babogamiye, bamaze kwemera ihame ry’uko “abanyarwanda bo mu bwoko runaka nta cyaha baba bakoze baramutse batoye umukandida bahuje na we ubwoko, igihe cyose baba babikoze mu buryo butabangamiye umudendezo n’uburenganzira bw’abo mu bundi bwoko bwo gutora na bo umukandida bashaka”, basubira i Arusha mu mishyikirano bagashyiraho gahunda y’isangira ry’ubutegetsi yatuma “abanyarwanda bo mu bwoko nyamuke bifuza kugira uruhare mu miyoborere y’igihugu cyabo no mu mikorereshereze y’umutungo wacyo bagira icyizere cy’uko batazazitirwa n’ubuke bw’abo bahuje ubwoko”.

Table 1. Umwanya w’ubwoko n’uburwanashyaka muri kabineti (cabinet) y’abaminisitiri y’u Rwanda kuva mu w’1992 kugeza mu w’2000.1

1perezida, minisitiri w’intebe na ba minisitiri bose, abanyamabanga ba leta batabariwemo.

2opozisiyo: amashyaka ya opozisiyo ya kidemokarasi.

3guverinoma yatangajwe ku itariki ya 18 werurwe 1994.

4ba minisitiri bose badakomoka mu mashyaka ya opozisiyo babariwe mu ruhande rw’ishyaka riri ku butegetsi.

(II) Ibinyuranye n’amasezerano y’i Arusha yo mu w’1993, ni ngombwa nanone ko, inzibacyuho igomba kuba ndende bihagije. Impande zifite intwaro za gisirikare zigomba kuzamburwa kugirango zitazazikoresha mu kubangamira abanyapolitiki bakunzwe n’abaturage, maze inshingano yo kurindira abanyarwanda umutekano igashyirwa mu buryo busesuye mu maboko y’ingabo za Loni cyangwa z’igihugu cyakwiyemeza mu ruhando rw’amahanga gusohoza inshingano yo guhagararira ishyirwa mu bikorwa ry’amasezerano mashya. Inzibacyuho igomba kurangira ari uko abanyarwanda bazaba bamaze kwishyiriraho uburyo bwo kubungabunga umutekano wabo butuma abakwifuza kongera gufata ubutegetsi binyuriye mu nzira y’urugomo badashobora kubigeraho.

(III) Ni ngombwa ko amasezerano mashya aha ibisubizo bikwiye ibibazo bikomoka ku myumvire ndondakoko (racism) yumvikanisha ko abanyarwanda barushanya ubushobozi bwo gusohoza neza inshingano runaka bishingiye ku bwoko bwabo cyangwa uturere bakomokamo; imyumvire yagize uruhare rukomeye mu gutuma habaho

(1) umuco wo guheza n’uwo kunena abo mu bundi bwoko.

(2) umuco wo kwihutura.

(3) guheza mu mashuri no mu butegetsi abanyarwanda bo mu bundi bwoko.

(4) guheza mu ngabo z’igihugu abanyarwanda bo mu bwoko bundi, zikagirwa umwihariko w’abanyarwanda bo mu bwoko bumwe.

(5) ubwubahane n’ubwizerane buke hagati y’abanyapolitiki ku mpamvu zifitanye isano no kudahuza bwoko.

(IV) Isangira ry’ubutegetsi rikwiye kubahiriza amahame akurikira:

(1) Ubwiganze bw’abagize ubwoko runaka mu butegetsi ntibugomba kuba munsi y’ijanisha runaka ryumvikanyweho (tuvuge 70%) ry’ubwiganze bw’abagize ubwo bwoko mu benegihugu b’u Rwanda muri rusange.

(2) Ubwiganze bw’abagize ubwoko runaka mu butegetsi ntibugomba kurenga ijanisha runaka ryumvikanyweho (tuvuge 60%) ry’imyanya y’ubutegetsi ipiganirwa.

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