How Aqueous Film-Forming Foam Became a Recipe for Disaster and a Legal Showdown

Once lauded as a firefighting marvel, aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF) now stands at the center of a contentious legal battle. For decades, AFFF’s ability to extinguish infernos was unmatched, saving countless lives. 

However, a disturbing truth emerged – AFFF contained harmful per-and-polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) that contaminated water sources and potentially caused severe health problems in firefighters. 

This realization led to legal action, with far-reaching consequences for the future of firefighting methods, environmental rules, and corporate accountability.

A Lifesaver on the Burning Horizon

AFFF’s story starts with its unparalleled ability to extinguish flammable liquid fires. According to the International Fire & Safety Journal, AFFF smothers flames by creating a film that cuts off the fuel supply. This innovation proved invaluable in industrial accidents and particularly on military airfields where jet fuel fires posed a significant threat. 

However, AFFF’s effectiveness was undeniable, but its long-term consequences remained shrouded in a fog of ignorance. The firefighting community wholeheartedly embraced this life-saving technology, unaware of the potential health risks lurking beneath the surface.

The Hidden Cost of PFAS

However, the effectiveness of AFFF came at a hidden cost. PFAS, a class of synthetic chemicals recognized for their environmental persistence and capacity to bioaccumulate in living things, were present in the firefighting foam. As time went on, worries about the potential health effects of PFAS exposure—such as a higher risk of cancer and weakened immune systems—grew.

According to NIH research from 2023, firemen who were exposed to AFFF had a greater cancer risk than the general population. The once-celebrated firefighting foam was now under suspicion, casting a long shadow over the health and well-being of those who used it.

Legal Battles

According to TorHoerman Law, as the dangers of PFAS became undeniable, a wave of lawsuits emerged from those exposed to AFFF. These lawsuits alleged that AFFF manufacturers failed to adequately warn about the health risks associated with PFAS and downplayed the risks of the chemicals. 

As per the Lawsuit Information Center, the initial wave of AFFF lawsuits commenced in 2017, leading to a significant accumulation of cases by 2018. This prompted the Judicial Panel on Multidistrict Litigation to consolidate these cases into a new class action MDL. This multidistrict litigation was established in December 2018 and overseen by Judge Richard Gergel in the U.S. District Court for South Carolina.

The AFFF lawsuit has escalated into a high-stakes legal contest involving millions of dollars and the futures of numerous individuals.

The Price of Ignorance

A crucial element of the legal battle centers on the knowledge manufacturers possess about the dangers of PFAS. Plaintiffs argue that manufacturers were aware of the potential health risks but chose to prioritize profits over safety. 

Internal documents and scientific studies are being scrutinized to determine the extent of the manufacturers’ knowledge and potential cover-ups. Did manufacturers intentionally mislead firefighters and the public about the safety of AFFF? The answer to this question can have a big influence on how the cases turn out as well as how PFAS-containing items are regulated.

The Changing Face of Firefighting

The AFFF narrative has had a significant influence on firefighting techniques. To safeguard the safety of firefighters and the environment, fire departments are actively looking for alternatives free of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances.

New training protocols emphasize the importance of proper gear and decontamination procedures to minimize PFAS exposure. For example, Washington State’s Department of Ecology notes that in 2018, the state passed the Toxics in Firefighting Law. Under this legislature, the state banned the manufacture, sale, and usage of AFFF for training exercises.

Firefighters are no longer simply battling blazes; they are also battling the invisible threat of PFAS contamination. The firefighting community is adapting and implementing new strategies to protect themselves.

Communities Caught in the Crossfire

The impact of AFFF contamination extends beyond firefighters. As per EHP Publishing, almost 200 million residents in the United States receive water contaminated by PFAS. Communities with PFAS-tainted water supplies grapple with the potential health risks and the associated costs of water treatment and remediation. 

The lawsuits seek to hold manufacturers accountable for the environmental damage and compensate affected communities. Residents are left feeling anxious and uncertain, unsure of the long-term health effects of PFAS exposure. The legal battle aims to provide some measure of justice and financial resources for communities struggling with the consequences of AFFF contamination.


How does an AFFF system work? 

AFFF systems work by mixing a concentrated foam solution with water. This creates a blanket of foam that smothers flames, cuts off the fuel supply, and cools the burning area.

Why are PFAS so hard to remove? 

PFAS are incredibly stable molecules. They don’t break down easily in the environment and can resist traditional water treatment methods, making them persistent pollutants.

When was AFFF first used?

The first documented use of AFFF dates back to the 1960s. However, its development likely began during World War II to combat flammable liquid fires, particularly jet fuel blazes.

In conclusion, the AFFF controversy underscores the urgent need for improved oversight and transparency in chemical safety, especially in critical applications like firefighting. The legal battles highlight corporate accountability and the importance of prioritizing public health and environmental protection. 

As firefighting practices evolve towards PFAS-free alternatives, this case serves as a pivotal moment for advancing safer technologies and strengthening regulatory frameworks. Ensuring accountability and safeguarding communities from future contamination are essential steps forward, emphasizing the lasting impact of industrial decisions on society and the environment.