Amatariki akomeye mu mateka y’u Rwanda mu kinyejana cya makumyabiri [1] [2] 

Mu myandikire y’amateka ayariyo yose, amatariki y’ingenzi ku byabaye ni ngombwa. Ibi ni ngombwa cyane cyane mu Rwanda, mu gihe ubutegetsi bwagiyeho kuva muri 1994, bwakoze kandi na n’ubu bugikomeza gukora ibishoboka byose, – birimo no gucura ibinyoma mu guhimba amateka, kugirango ibireba igihugu byose byandikwe kandi bimenyekane mu buryo buboneye imitegekere yabwo.

Aya matariki y’amateka atangajwe kugirango akosore bimwe mu bivugwa muri iki gihe, uko amateka yarazwi kugeza muri 1994, no kuzuza amateka amwe ya nyuma y’iyi tariki mu buryo atangazwa, cyangwa se ntiyitabweho n’ubutegetsi buriho, kubera inyungu zabwo.

1900 – Abapadiri Bera bemerewe gukorera mu Rwanda, bajya gutura mu majyepfo, ahitwa i Save.

1916 – Ububiligi, bumaze gutsinda ingabo z’abadage mu ntambara ya mbere y’isi yose, bwigaruriye akarere ka Ruanda-Urundi.

28/06/1919 – Abadage basinye amasezerano y’i Versailles. Nyuma y’ibisa neza no kumvikana nk’abacuruza ibintu, Ababiligi begukanye gushingwa u Ruanda n’u Burundi.

21/1919 – Inama nkuru y’umuryango w’ibihugu byifatanyije (Societe des Nations) yemeje ku mugaragaro iragizwa ry’u Ruanda n’u Burundi u Bubiligi.

1923 – Umuryango w’ibihugu byifatanyije wahaye u Bubiligi ububasha bwo kuyobora Ruanda-Urundi.

1925 – U Bubiligi bwashyize hamwe imiyoborere ya Ruanda-Urundi n’iya Kongo mbiligi (Republika iharanira demokrasi ya Kongo y’ubu).

16/11/1931 – Ububiligi bwimitse kugahato umwami w’umukristu, Mutara III Rudahigwa, bumaze gucira se Musinga i Kamembe. Hashyizweho kandi ibitabo biranga umuntu, harimo umwirondoro werekana ubwoko muntu abarizwamo, aribwo Hutu, Tutsi na Twa.

13/12/1946 – Umuryango w’abibumbye n’u Bubiligi basinyanye amasezerano yashyiraga Ruanda-Urundi mu rwego rw’indagizo. Ayo masezerano yemejwe kandi n’abadepite b’u Bubiligi.

27/10/1946 – Umwamwi Mutara III Rudahigwa yatuye uRuanda Kristu Umwami.

24/03/1957 – Manifeste y’abahutu yamaganye ububasha n’ibintu bikabije byihariwe n’ingoma ntutsi kandi bishyigikiwe n’ubutegetsi bw’ababiligi; isaba ubureshyeshye mu rwego rwa politiki, ubukungu no gushobora kwiga.

Ibaruwa y’abagaragu bakuru b’i Bwami bemeza ko nta kibazo Hutu-Tutsi kiriho.

03/09/1959 – Ishingwa ry’ishyaka UNAR (Union Nationale Rwandaise) ryari rishyigikiye ubwami kandi rigaharanira ubwigenge busesuye vuba. 

18/10/1959 – Ishyingwa ry’ishyaka PARMEHUTU (Parti de l’emancipation du menu peuple hutu) ryaharaniraga kurenganura abahutu no kubona ubwigenge busesuye nyuma y’uko akarengane kavuyeho.

01/11/1959 – Insoresore z’abatutsi zakubise Dominiko Mbonyumutwa, wari umwe mu baharaniraga kurenganura abahutu, nuko biba intandaro ya revolusiyo yakuyeho ubwami. Abantu benshi bari bashyigikiye ingoma ya cyami, cyane cyane abatutsi bari bafite ubutegetsi, bahungiye mu bihugu bihana imbibi n’uRwanda. 

30/07/1960 – Habaye amatora y’abakonseye. Muri ayo matora, PARMEHUTU yegukanye amajwi angana na 70%, naho UNAR ibona 2% gusa, andi mashyaka (APROSOMA na RADER ndetse na AREDETWA abona ibice bisigaye.[3]

28/01/1961 – Kongre y’i Gitarama yarimo abakonseye n’ababurgumestre batowe kuwa 30/07/1960, yaciye ubwami ishyiraho repubulika y’u Rwanda n’ibirangantego byayo. Mbonyumutwa Dominiko yatorewe kuba perezida wa repubulika y’agateganyo, Kayibanda Geregori aba minisitiri w’intebe, naho Gitera Habyarimana Yozefu atorerwa kuba umukuru w’inama nshingamategeko. 

25/09/1961 – LONI yakoresheje amatora ya Kamarampaka yaciye burundu ubwami, agahamya ishyirwaho rya repubulika. 

26/10/1961 – Kayibanda Gregori wo mw’ishyaka PARMEHUTU yatorewe kuba perezida wa repubulika ya mbere, asimbura perezida w’agateganyo Mbonyumutwa Dominiko.

01/07/1962 – Indepandansi y’u Rwanda n’u Burundi. 

1963 – Inyenzi (Ingangurago Ziyemeje Kujya Imbere) zateye u Rwanda zishaka guhirika inzego za repubulika, zihagarikwa n’ingabo z’u Rwanda ku Kanzenze. Ibindi bitero byazo byabaye muri 1964, 1966 na 1967.

1965 – Perezida Kayibanda amaze kongera gutorwa yemejeko PARMEHUTU ariryo shyaka ryonyine ryemewe. Habyarimana Yuvenali yashinzwe kuyobora ministeri y’ingabo n’abapolisi b’igihugu.

1969 – Kayibanda yongeye gutorwa ubwa gatatu; yahinduye izina ry’ishyaka PARMEHUTU aryita PARMEHUTU Urugaga Ruharanira Demokrasi na Republika.

02/1973 – Ishyirwaho ry’imibare ntarengwa y’abatutsi n’abahutu mu mashuli no mu kazi ka Leta. [4]

18/05/1973 – Itegeko nshinga rivuguruye ryemerera prerezida kuba yakwiyamamaza inshuro ashaka ubuziraherezo.

05/07/1973 – Abasilikari bakuru b’igihugu bayobowe na Jenerali Majoro Habyarimana Yuvenali bakoze kudeta bavanaho ubutegetsi bwa Kayibanda.

01/08/1973 – Jenerali Majoro Habyarimana Yuvenali yatangaje umurongo rusange wa politiki w’ubutegetsi bwe, anashyiraho guverinoma ye yambere igizwe n’abaministri 14.

02/02/1974 – Prezida Habyarimana yatangije gahunda y’umuganda mu rwego rw’igihugu. 

05/07/1975 – Ishingwa ry’ishyaka MRND, ryari ishyaka rimwe rukumbi rihuriwemo n’abanyarwanda bose.

16/12/1976 – Urupfu rwa Perezida Kayibanda Geregori i Kavumu (Gitarama).

17/12/1978. Itegekoshinga rivuguruwe ryaratoreshejwe muri referendum riremezwa. Ryemezako MRND ariryo shyaka rimwe rukumbi ryemewe. Buri munyarwanda aribamo ntaguhitamo.

24/12/1978 – Itora rya perezida rya mbere muri republika ya kabiri. Habyarimana wari kandida wenyine yatowe ku bwiganze bw’amajwi arenga 99%.

1979 – Abahoze muri UNAR bari barahunze muri za 1960, bashinze Ihuriro ry’igihugu nyarwanda (RANU – Rwandese National Union) muri Kenya. Niryo ryaje guhindukamo FPR.

04/1980 – Kudeta iyobowe na Major Lizinde Theoneste wayoboraga iperereza mu gihugu, afatanyije n’uwahoze ari umukuru wa Banki y’igihugu, Birara Jean Berchmans, hamwe na Koloneli Kanyarengwe Alegisi yaje gupfuba. Impamvu z’iyo kudeta ngo kwari ukubera ikimenyane Habyarimana yakoreshaga ashyira igorora abatutsi, no guta umurongo w’abarwanyije ingoma ya cyami.

31/12/1980 – Koloneli Kanyarengwe Alegisi yahungiye muri Tanzaniya, aho FPR yamusanze ikamugira Chairman wayo igiye gutera u Rwanda muri 1990.

06/02/1981 – Mu Buganda Yoweri Museveni yatangije imirwano y’inyeshyamba zarwanyaga ubutegetsi bwa Milton Obote, zirimo abaje kuyobora nyuma FPR, aribo Rwigema Fred na Kagame Paul.

10/1982 – Perezida wa Uganda Milton Obote yirukanye ku butaka bw’igihugu cye impunzi z’abanyarwanda zigera mu bihumbi 80. 

28/12/1982 – Habaye amatora y’abadepite bo guhagararira abaturage mu nteko y’igihugu iharanira amajyambere (CND).

19/12/1983 – Perezida Habyarimana yarongeye atorerwa kuyobora igihugu n’amajwi 99%.

26/01/1986  Inyeshyamba za NRA ziyobowe na Museveni zavanye Milton Obote ku butegetsi muri Uganda. 

01/07/1987 – Hijihijwe isabukuru y’imyaka 25 ya indepandansi y’u Rwanda.

12/1987 – RANU yahinduye izina yitwa noneho Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF). 05/02/1988 – Perezida Habyarimana Yuvenali na Yoweri Museveni wa Uganda bahuriye i Semuto mu Buganda, bashyiraho komite yo mu rwego rw’abaministiri b’ibihugu byombi, yo kwiga no gushakira ibisubizo ikibazo cy’impunzi z’abanyarwanda.

17-20/08/1988 – Muri kongre y’abatutsi baba mu mahanga yabereye i Washingtoni, RANU imaze guhinduka RPF, hashimangiwe umugambi wo gufata ubutegetsi mu Rwanda ku ngufu.

08/1988 – Mu majyaruguru y’u Burundi, muri Ntega  na Marangara, ubutegetsi bugizwe n’abasilikari b’abatutsi bwishe abaturage b’abahutu bagera kuri 20.000; abahunze bagana mu Rwanda, mu gace ka Butare, bageraga ku bihumbi 60.

19/12/1988 – Perezida Habyarimana yongeye gutorwa, agira amajwi 99.98%.

19-21/06/1990 – Mu nama y’abakuru b’ibihugu bivuga igifaransa y’i La Baule, perezida Mitterand Fransisko w’u Bufransa yabwiye abayobozi b’ibihugu by’Afrika bifitanye n’u Bufransa umubano wihariye ko impfashanyo zabwo kuva icyo gihe zizajya zijyana n’urwego ibyo bihugu bitera muri demokrasi.

01/09/1990 – Inyandiko yitwa “Pour le multipartisme et la democratie,” yitiriwe abanyabwenge 33 b’abanyarwanda bari bayisinye igenewe prezida wa Republika yasohotse mu binyamakuru.[6]

01/10/1990 – Inkotanyi zigize umutwe w’abarwanyi ba FPR bateye u Rwanda baturutse mu Buganda, bafashijwe n’ingabo za Uganda NRA.

02/10/1990 – Umugaba w’ingabo za FPR, Rwigema Fred, yarishwe.

02-06/10/1990 – Abantu bagera kuri 6.000 barafunzwe, baregwa kuba ibyitso bya FPR.

01/1991 – Inkotanyi zateye mu Ruhengeri ziturutse mu birunga bya Gahinga na Muhabura, zifungura imfungwa 1.566 zari muri prizo ya Ruhengeri. Mubo zatwaye harimo Majoro Lizinde Theoneste na Komanda Biseruka Stanislasi.

18/06/1991 – Itegeko ryemera amashyaka menshi ryashyizweho umukono na perezida Habyarimana.

13/10/1991 – Ministri w’Intebe Nsanzimana Sylvestre wo mw’ishyaka MRNDD yashyizweho kugirango ashyireho guverinoma ihuriweho n’amashyaka menshi.[7] Yaje gushyiraho guverinoma ye kuya 30/12/1991 yarihuriweho n’amashyaka MRNDD na PDC.[8]

12/04/1992 – Guverinoma ihuriweho n’amashyaka MRND, MDR, PL, PSD na PDC yagiyeho, iyoborwa na Ministri w’intebe Nsengiyaremye Dismas wo muri MDR.

05/1992 – Inkotanyi zateye igitero gikomeye mu majyaruguru y’u Rwanda; zibasha gushinga ibirindiro ku butaka bw’u Rwanda. Abaturage benshi zahasanze zarabishe, abandi bagera kuri 350.000 zibavana mu byabo, baba impunzi mu gihugu cyabo.

28/05 – 04/06/1992 – Amashyaka atavuga rumwe na MRND yasinyanye na FPR mu Bubiligi amasezerano y’ubufatanye mu gukuraho ubutegetsi bwa Habyarimana.

09/1992 – Arusha muri Tanzaniya hatangijwe imishyikirano y’amahoro no kugabana ubutegetsi hagati ya Leta y’u Rwanda na FPR.

08/02/1993 – FPR/ Inkotanyi zateye igitero simusiga gihagarikirwa hafi ya Kigali, umurwa mukuru w’u Rwanda. Icyo gitero cyatumye abaturage bagera kuri miliyoni bo muri Ruhengeri na Byumba bava mu byabo baza mu nkegero za Kigali muri Nyacyonga.

18/05/1993 – Gapyisi Emanweri, umwe mu bagize biro politiki ya MDR,  wayoboraga komisiyo y’iteganyamigambi y’ishyaka, akaba yari no kw’isonga ry’urugaga rugamije amahoro na demokrasi “forum paix et democracie” yari yarashinze, yishwe na FPR arasiwe imbere y’iwe mu mugi wa Kigali.

01/06/1993 – Mu Burundi Ndadaye Melchior yatowe ku bwiganze bw’amajwi 64,75%, aba umuprezida wa mbere w’umuhutu mur’icyo gihugu. Ishyaka rye FRODEBU ryegukanye kandi amajwi 71,41%  mu matora y’abadepite.

05/07/1993 – Kongre ya MRND yatoreye Ngirumpatse Matayo kuba umukuru w’ishyaka.

18/07/1993 – Uwiringiyimana Agata yabaye ministri w’intebe wa guverinoma ihuriweho n’amashyaka menshi.

04/08/1993 – Amasezerano ya Arusha yashyizweyo umukono n’impande zombi.

21/10/1993 – Habaye kudeta mu Burundi, perezida Ndadaye Melchior yicwa urwagashinyaguro. Imvururu zakurikiye zaguyemo abantu ibihumbi n’ibihumbi, abandi nabo benshi bahungira mu bihugu bikikije uBurundi birimo u Rwanda.

01/11/1993 – Ingabo za MINUAR (umutwe woherejwe na LONI mu gufasha gushyira mu bikorwa amasezerano y’amahoro yari yasinyiwe Arusha kuya 04/08/1993) zageze mu Rwanda.

28/12/1993 – Abahagarariye FPR barimo n’ingabo zigeze kuri 600 bageze i Kigali, batuzwa muri CND. 

21/02/1994 – Iyicwa rya Gatabazi Felisiyani, rikozwe n’abicanyi ba FPR i Kigali. Gatabazi yari ministri w’imirimo ya leta n’ingufu, akaba n’umuhuzabikorwa w’ishyaka PSD. Ibyo gushyiraho inzego za guverinoma yaguye irimo na FPR byari biteganyijwe umunsi ukurikiyeho byigijweyo.

22/02/1994 – Bucyana Martini wari umukuru w’ishyaka CDR akaba yari yarigeze no kuba ministri w’amaposita, gutwara abantu n’ibintu n’itumanaho, yiciwe i Butare n’abicanyi ba FPR.

06/04/1994 – Iyicwa rya ba perezida Habyarimana Yuvenali na Ntaryamira Sipiriyani, hamwe n’abo bari kumwe bose mu ndege yari ibavanye muri Tanzaniya. Iyo ndege yahanuwe bitegetswe na Jenerali Kagame Polo wayoboraga ingabo za FPR.

07/04/1994 – Iyicwa rya ministri w’intebe Uwiringiyimana Agata, n’irya basirikari 10 b’ababiligi bo mu ngabo za LONI bari muri MINUAR; mu rukerera rw’iyo tariki ni nabwo FPR yubuye imirwano simusiga ku birindiro byose by’ingabo z’u Rwanda no mu mugi wa Kigali, igamije gufata ubutegetsi m’u Rwanda.

09/04/1994 – Ishyirwayo rya guverinoma y’abatabazi iyobowe na perezida Sindikubwabo Tewodori na ministri w’intebe Kambanda Yohani.

22/06/1994 – Icyemezo nimero 929 (1994) cy’Inama y’Umutekano kw’isi cyarafashwe cyemerera Ubufransa gutangiza Operation Turquoise mu Rwanda mu gice FPR itari yakigarurira.

04/07/1994 – Ifatwa rya Kigali na FPR

19.07.1994 – Ishyirwaho rya Guverinoma y’ubwiyunge iyobowe na Prezida Pasiteri Bizimungu na Ministri w’intebe Faustin Twagiramungu.

21/08/1994 – Irangira rya Operation Turquoise

08/11/1994 – Ishyirwaho ry’Urukiko Mpuzamahanga Mpanabyaha rwa Arusha, bigenywe n’icyemezo numero S/RES/955 (1994) cy’inama iharanira umutekano w’isi mu rwego rwa LONI.

22/04/1995 – Iyicwa ry’impunzi zirenga ibihumbi umunani mu zari i Kibeho, ryakozwe n’ingabo za FPR, imbere y’ingabo za LONI.

25-26/10/1996 – Iterwa ry’inkambi z’impunzi zari i Kibumba na Katale muri Kongo.[9] FPR yakoresheje ibisasu bya rutura mu kurasa izo nkambi, zipfamo abatagira ingano.

01/11/1996 – Abarwanyi bitwaga Abanyamulenge bateye inkambi z’impunzi z’abanyarwanda zari i Bukavu, Kashusha, INERA na ADI-KIVU muri Kongo, barazisenya. Impunzi zigera kuri 250.000 zari zizirimo zafashe inzira zimwe zigana Kisangani izindi zihungira mu mashyamba ya Kongo.

15-17/11/1996 – Inkambi ya Mugunga i Goma muri Kongo yaragoswe inaraswamwo ibisasu bikaze na FPR, benshi barahagwa; impunzi zigera ku bihumbi 500 zisubizwa mu Rwanda ku gahato, abandi bagera ku bihumbi 250 bagana iya Kisangani muri Kongo.

12/1996 – Hagati y’impunzi ibihumbi 100 na 150 zarimo abanyarwanda n’abarundi zaturutse Uvira, Bukavu na Goma muri Kongo zashoboye kugera i Tingi-Tingi hafi ya Kisangani muri Kongo. 

16/05/1998 – Seth Sendashonga, wari warahunze leta ya FPR yararimo ari ministri w’ubutegetsi bw’igihugu, yiciwe i Nairobi n’abantu boherejwe n’ubutegetsi bw’u Rwanda.

 

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[1] Habyarimana, Jeanne (2016), Mon pere, cette autre partie de moi qu’on m’a arrachee, Hommage a Juvenal Habyarimana, Editions Scribe, Bruxelles, pp.206-248.

[2] Amatariki amwe yakuwe mu yakozwe na Radio France Internationale yerekeye amateka y’u Rwanda igihe hibukwagwa imyaka icumi nyuma ya 1994.

[3] Nyuma y’uko abatware benshi bahunganye n’umwami mu mvururu zabaye kuva kuya 01/11/1959, uturere twinshi tw’igihugu twasigaye nta butegetsi bwa hafi bufite. Ariya matora y’abakonseye n’ababurugumestre yaje ari ayo kuziba icyo cy’uho.

[4] Ibi byemezo by’ubutegetsi bwa Kayibanda byafashwe nyuma ya jenoside yari yakorewe abahutu bo mu Burundi mu mwaka wabanzaga (1972), aho ubutegetsi bwa Micombero bwari bwiganjemo abatutsi bwishe mu gihugu hose icyitwaga umuhutu wese uzi gusoma no kwandika, haba mu mashuli, mu bigo bya leta cyangwa mu giturage. Iyi gahunda y’ubugome burenze y’itsembabwoko yari yashyizwe imbere kandi iza kuyoborwa na Ministiri w’ubutegetsi by’igihugu Artemon Simbananiye. 

[5] Bamwe mur’izo mpunzi z’abanyarwanda zirukanywe na Milton Obote, leta ya Habyarimana yabatuje ku Rusumo, mu burengerazuba bw’Urwanda, ahari hatunganyijwe n’umushinga wa BGM (Bugesera -Gisaka-Migongo).

[6] Iyi nyandiko yasohotse mu gihugu hari umwuka wa politiki werekanako hari byinshi bishobora guhinduka. Nyuma y’inama y’i La Baule, ubutegetsi bwa Habyarimana bwari buri kwivugurura. Ariko ni nabwo inkotanyi mu Buganda zari zirikwisuganya kugirango zitere u Rwanda. Muri abo basinye iriya nyandiko, hari abari bazi ibirigutegurwa n’inkotanyi hanze ndetse n’imbere mu gihugu, ku buryo zimaze gutera, n’amashyaka mashya nayo ari kuvuka, byahise bigaragarira uwabikurikiraniraga hafi aho buri wese yari ahagaze. Nubwo bose bari bahuriye ku gitekerezo cy’uko imitegekere y’igihugu yahinduka, uko byagombaga kugerwaho ntibari babihuriyeho.

[7] MRND yahinduye izina yitwa MRNDD kuya 05/07/1991.

[8] Mur’iki gihe, intambara y’inkotanyi nubwo igitero cyazo cya mbere zari zaragitsinzwe, byari bizwi na Leta ya Habyarimana ko zitatsinzwe burundu. Kubera iyo mpamvu, yakoraga ibishoboka byose kugira ngo ibyo zashingiragaho zitera ibivane mu nzira. Ni muri uru rwego guverinoma ya Nsanzimana yagiyeho ihuriweho n’amashyaka 2. 

[9] Inkambi z’impunzi z’abahutu zashenywe na Leta y’u Rwanda ikoresheje ibibunda bya rutura, ku buryo mu nkambi haguye abatabarika; ariko iri senywa ryari riri muri gahunda ndende yo kwigarurira igihugu cya Zaire ubu cyitwa  Repubulika Iharanira Demokrasi ya Kongo.

Icyitonderwa: iyi nyandiko iri muri bimwe mubizashyirwa mu gitabo kiri gukorwaho n’umushinga w’ubwanditsi witwa IBIRARI BY’AMATEKA wibanda ku gukusanya amazina n’ibikorwa – byiza cyangwa bibi – by’abanyarwanda babayeho mu kinyejana cya makumyabiri (abo benshi baba bakeka bakiriho ntibarimo rero), byatumye bamenyekana cyane, haba hagati y’abanyarwanda ubwabo, cyangwa se no mu mahanga ya kure.

Maniragena Valensi

Nzeyimana Ambrozi

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