KAYIBANDA GEREGORI

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 Kayibanda Geregori (1.05.1924-16.12.1976), ni umunyapolitiki ukomeye mu mateka y’Urwanda. Yabaye perezida wa kabiri wa repubulika y’Urwanda. Niwe wa mbere watowe mu matora rusange. Yasimbuye Mbonyumutwa Dominiko ku mwanya wa Perezida. Mbonyumutwa yabaye Perezida w’u Rwanda kuva kuya 28 Mutarama 1961 kugeza kuya 26 Ukwakira 1961. Icyo gihe Kayibanda yari Minisitiri w’intebe wa leta y’agateganyo. Kayibanda yavuye ku butegetsi akorewe kudeta na Habyarimana Yuvenali wabaye Perezida w’u Rwanda nyuma ye. 

Kayibanda Geregori yavukiye i Tare mu Marangara ho mu Nduga, kuya 1 Gicurasi 1924. Ababyeyi be ni Rwamanywa Lewonidasi na Nyirambeba Karolina.  Amashuri abanza yayize i Tare 1932-1934 ayakomereza i Kabgayi 1934-1937. Amashuri  yisumbuye yayigiye mu Iseminari nto yitiriwe Mutagatifu Leon i Kabgayi (1937-1943). Kayibanda yinjiye mu Iseminari nkuru i Nyakibanda ku ya 28 Ukuboza 1944. Amaze gufata icyemezo cyo kutiyegurira Imana nk’umusaserdoti, yavuye mu Iseminari nkuru ya Nyakibanda kuya 15 Ugushyingo 1948. 

Kuwa 20 Mutarama 1949 Kayibanda yatangiye umwuga w’ubwarimu muri «Institut Léon Classe» aho yigishije kugeza mu 1952. Ibyo kandi yabifatanyaga n’ubuzima busanzwe bwa buri munsi mu gukemura ibibazo binyuranye byari byugarije rubanda rugufi aho yari atuye. Kuya 25 Gicurasi 1950, Kayibanda Geregori yashakanye na Mukagatare Verediyana. Babyaranye abana 10. Muri Nzeri 1950 Kayibanda yagiye muri Kongere ya JOC yabereye i Buruseri mu Bubirigi. Avuyeyo yashinze umuryango w’ubucuti hagati y’ababirigi n’abanyarwanda. 

Kayibanda yabaye umunyamabanga mu biro by’ubugenzuzi bw’amashuri i Kabgayi kuva mu mwaka w’1953. Mu byo yari ashinzwe harimo kunonosora imfashanyigisho ngo zijyane n’igihe.  Kuva muri Kamena 1953, Kayibanda  yabaye umwanditsi mukuru w’ikinyamakuru l’AMI. Yifashishije iki kinyamakuru, yashoboye gutambutsa ibitekerezo bye bituma ahindura imitekerereze ya rubanda ndetse n’ubutegetsi. Yasabye ko uburenganzira bw’abaturage bwo kwibumbira mu mashyirahamwe no mu makoperative bwakubahirizwa ku buryo busesuye.

Mu mwaka w’1955, Kayibanda yavuye ku kazi ko gukora mu bugenzuzi bw’amashuri aba Perezida wa Komite ncungamikorere ya Koperative TRAFIPRO. Icyo gihe kandi yabaye umwanditsi mukuru wa Kinyamateka. Yanabaye umwe mu bagize Inama ngishwanama ya Marangara. Gukora ako kazi byafashije Kayibanda kumenyekanisha ibitekerezo bye.  

Ku tariki ya 24 Werurwe 1957, Kayibanda Geregori hamwe na bagenzi be bashyize ahagaragara inyandiko yaje kumenyekana cyane ku nyito ya “Manifesite y’abahutu” yagaragazaga akarengane ka rubanda rugufi yari igizwe ahanini n’abahutu. Iyo nyandiko yari igenewe Umwami Mutara wa III Rudahigwa hamwe n’abategetsi b’Ababirigi. Uretse kwerekana akaga rubanda rugufi yari ifite, yerekanaga n’uburyo ako kaga kakurwaho. Ku buryo bw’umwihariko, iyo nyandiko  yasabaga ko ibyiza by’igihugu byasaranganywa mu banyarwanda bose nta kuvangura.

Muri Kamena 1957, Kayibanda afatanyije na bamwe muri bagenzi be bashinze ishyirahamwe ryitwa “Mouvement Social Muhutu” ryari rifite intego yo gufasha abahutu kujijuka no gukora ibikorwa bibafasha kujya imbere. Kuya 9 Nzeri 1957, Kayibanda yagiye mu mahugurwa ku byerekeye itangazamakuru mu Bubiligi. Ayo mahugurwa yayakoreye mu kinyamakuru cyitwa  «Journal Vers l’avenir» cyandikirwaga mu Bubirigi.

Kayibanda yagarutse kuwa 08 Ugushyingo 1958, maze ahita akomereza imirimo ye muri Kinyamateka guhera tariki ya 25 Ugushyingo 1958. Umwami Mutara III Rudahigwa amaze gutanga kuya 25 Nyakanga 1959 yaje gusimburwa ku buryo butunguranye na murumuna we Ndahindurwa wimye ku izina rya Kigeri wa gatanu. Umuhango wo kwima kwa Ndahindurwa wabereye i Mwima  wa Nyanza ubwo habaga umuhango wo gushyingura Rudahigwa kuwa 28 Nyakanga 1959. Bidatinze, ku itariki ya 7 Kanama 1959, Kayibanda na bagenzi be bashyikirije umwami mushya nanone ibarwa bamusaba guha agaciro impungenge bagejeje ku mwami yari asimbuye ntaziteho. Bumvaga ko ubwo we ari umusore ashobora kugira ubushake bwo kwimakaza uburinganire bw’abanyarwanda imbere y’amategeko.

Kuya 19 Ukwakira 1959  Kayibanda Geregori na bagenzi be bashinze ishyaka rya politiki baryita PARMEHUTU. Iri shyaka mu by’ukuri ryabyawe na rya shyirahamwe “Mouvement Social Muhutu”. Nyuma PARMEHUTU yaje guhindura izina yitwa MDR-PARMEHUTU, Mouvement Démocratique Républicain – PARMEHUTU. Ishyaka ubwo ryari rifashe icyemezo cyo guharanira ko u Rwanda ruhinduka Repubulika, ubwami bukavaho.

Umwami Kigeri V Ndahindurwa akimara kwima ingoma yashyizeho umutwe w’ingabo zatangiye gushakisha no kwica abo zitaga ko ari abanzi b’umwami. Mu by’ukuri izo ngabo zahigaga abanyarwanda bagaragazaga ko bashyigikiye ko uburyo igihugu kiyobowe bwahinduka ku neza y’abanyarwanda bose. Ba Secyugu, Mukwiye, Kanyaruka, Sindibona, Kavumbutse, Kayuku, n’abandi benshi, bahitanywe n’iyi nkubiri. Nyuma y’aho kuya 1 Ugushyingo 1959 insoresore z’abatutsi zikubise sushefu Mbonyumutwa Dominiko bikabyara Revolusiyo, abatutsi bamwe batangiye guhungira mu bihugu bihana imbibi n’u Rwanda. Cyane cyane abahunze ni abumvaga ko batategekwa n’abahutu. 

Muri Kamena 1960, Umwami Kigeri V Ndahindurwa yagiye mu mihango yo kwizihiza indepandansi ya Kongo yabaye kuya 30 Kamena 1960. Kuva avuye mu gihugu, Kigeri V Ndahindurwa ntiyabashije kugaruka mu gihugu ngo akomeze imirimo ye nk’umwami. Muri uwo mwaka w’1960, habaye amatora ya ba konseye na ba burugumesitiri. Ayo matora yari yaragenwe muri gahunda y’imyaka icumi yo gutegura ibihugu by’u Rwanda n’u Burundi kubona ubwigenge busesuye. Ayo matora yatsinzwe n’ishyaka MDR rya Kayibanda Geregori. Ishyaka UNAR ryari rishyigikiye umwami ryanze kwemera ibyavuye muri ayo matora maze rirega muri ONU.

Kuya 26 Ukwakira 1960, Abakoloni hamwe n’abayobozi b’amashyaka ya Politiki mu Rwanda bashingiye ku ngingo y’uko Umwami w’u Rwanda yari amaze igihe kinini ataba mu gihugu, bashyizeho leta y’agateganyo n’Inama Nkuru y’Igihugu y’Agateganyo. Kayibanda Geregori yashinzwe kuyobora Guverinoma y’agateganyo, naho Habyarimana Yozefu Gitera atorerwa kuyobora Inama Nkuru y’Igihugu y’Agateganyo.

Kuya 28 Mutarama 1961, Kongere y’abakonseye n’ababurugumesitiri bari baratowe mu matora yo muri 1960 yateraniye i Gitarama itumijwe na Minisitiri w’ubutegetsi bw’igihugu Rwasibo Yohani Batisita. Iyo Kongere yafashe ibyemezo bikomeye: Ubwami bwakuweho hashyirwaho Repubulika. Kalinga yaraciwe isimburwa n’Ibendera ry’u Rwanda. Hashyizweho Perezida w’agateganyo ari nawe wabaye Perezida wa mbere w’u Rwanda bwana Mbonyumutwa Dominiko. Kayibanda Geregori yahawe inshingano zo gushyiraho no kuyobora Guverinoma y’agateganyo. Hashyizweho Inteko ishinga amategeko yayobowe na Habyarimana Yozefu Gitera. Hashyizweho n’urukiko rukuru rw’igihugu.

Igihe i Gitarama haberaga Kongere yashyizeho Repubulika y’u Rwanda, mu karere hari intumwa z’Umuryango w’abibumbye zari zaje ku busabe bwa UNAR zije kureba niba ikirego cyayo ku buryo amatora y’abakonseye yagenze gifite ishingiro. Umuryango w’abibumbye, ushingiye kuri raporo y’izo ntumwa wemeje ko kuya 25 Nzeri 1961 haba Kamarampaka.  Ikibazo cyabajijwe abanyarwanda muri iyo Kamarampaka, ni ugusubiza niba bashyigikiye Ubwami cyangwa Repubulika. Ikindi cyari uko mu gihe ushyigikiye Ubwami, waba ushyigikiye ko umwami w’u Rwanda aba Kigeri V Ndahindurwa. 

Amatora ya Kamarampaka yagaragaje ko abanyarwanda badashaka Ubwami ko ahubwo bashyigikiye Repubulika. Bashingiye ku byavuye muri Kamarampaka, Intumwa za rubanda zari mu Nteko nshingamategeko zatoye Kayibanda Geregori kuba Perezida wa Repubulika y’u Rwanda kuya 26 Ukwakira 1961 agasimbura kuri uwo mwanya Mbonyumutwa Dominiko. Amaze gutorerwa kuba Perezida, Kayibanda yakomeje no kuba minisitiri w’intebe. Uwo mwanya wa minisitiri w’intebe aho kugira ngo ugumeho ndetse uhabwe undi muyoboke w’ishyaka ryari ryatsinze amatora, ahubwo waje kuvaho burundu.

U Rwanda rwasubiranye ubusugire bwarwo kuya 1 Nyakanga 1962. Perezida wa mbere w’u Rwanda rwigenga aba Kayibanda Geregori. Kuva mu mwaka w’1960, ingabo z’umwami zari zariyise INYENZI zagiye zigaba ibitero ku Rwanda zigamije gufata ubutegetsi ku ngufu. Ibitero byari bikomeye byari ibyo mu Birunga, mu Bugesera, Nshili na Bweyeye. Kuri noheli yo muri 1963, igitero cyo mu Bugesera cyari gikomeye cyane, ku buryo cyagarukiye ku kiraro cya Kanzenze ku mugezi wa Nyabarongo. Hari ku bilometero 15 gusa mbere yo kugera mu murwa mukuru Kigali. Ingabo z’u Rwanda zari zigishingwa zabashije guhangana n’izo Nyenzi, zirinda ubusugire bwa Repubulika y’u Rwanda.

Ibitero by’inyenzi, kubera kwica abaturage aho byanyuraga nta kurobanura byaje gutuma buri gihe haba ibikorwa byo kwihorera, cyane nko muri Gikongoro mu myaka ya 1963 na 1964. Bamwe bo muri UNAR na RADER nabo bafashwe nk’ibyitso by’inyenzi barafungwa, bamwe baranicirwa i Nyamagumba kuya 23 Ukuboza 1963. Ariko buhoro buhoro, cyane nyuma y’ibitero by’inyenzi byo mu mwaka w’1963, amashyaka amwe yahisemo kwinjira muri MDR andi azimira burundu. 

Kutumvikana hagati mu bagize ubutegetsi bushya bwiganjemo abahutu nti byatinze. Kuya 2 Kanama 1962 kugeza muri Gashyantare 1963 Habyarimana Yozefu Gitera wa APROSOMA yarafunzwe azizwa kwinubira ubwikanyize bwa MDR Parmehutu mu butegetsi. Afunguwe, yaje kwibagirama kugeza muri 1969, ubwo Kayibanda yamwitwaje mu matora y’abadepite muri 1969.

Muri 1963, ibyo kutumvikana byakomereje mu bushyamirane hagati y’abategetsi bakomoka i Butare, mu cyiswe “affaire Nzeruka”, bari bakomeye m’ubutegetsi n’ibigo bya Leta, hamwe n’abi Gitarama. Abakomoka i Gitarama bakaba baratinyagako imiyoborere y’igihugu yazimuka ikajya i Butare. Nzeyimana Isidori, wari umukuru w’urukiko rw’ikirenga, Rugira Amandini, perezida w’inteko ishinga amategeko na Kalinijabo Karoli, perefe wa Kigali, nubwo uyu yari umunyakigali, bavugwa muri buriya bushyamirane. Undi wabuvuzwemo ni Sezirahiga Fransisiko, perefe wa Butare. Imbuto mbi y’ironda karere yabibwe rugikubita.

Inteko nshingamategeko ya mbere yaje gushyiraho komisiyo yo gukora iperereza ryerekeye ruswa n’indi mikorere idahwitse mu nzego z’ubutegetsi. Raporo y’iyi komisiyo yari iyobowe na Anastase Makuza, ntiyizwe n’abadepite kubushake bwa perezida wa repubulika. Mu nteko yagiyeho muri 1965 iyobowe na Bicamumpaka Baltazari, hashyizweho indi komisiyo ijya gusa n’iriya yo mu nteko yayibanjirije, yaje gukora raporo yiswe “Umutumba” yerekanaga amakosa yakorwaga mu buyobozi byo hejuru bw’igihugu. Ibyo byakuruye umwiryane mu ishyaka MDR ku buryo bamwe mu bayoboke b’ishyaka bahagaritswe byitwa ko “bataye umurongo”.

Guverinoma ya mbere ya Kayibanda yari igizwe n’abaminisitiri baturuka mu mashyaka menshi. Ariko mu mwaka w’1965, MDR yari imaze kuba ishyaka rimwe rukumbi mu Rwanda. Kubera izo mpamvu, Kayibanda yari umukandida umwe rukumbi mu matora rusange y’umukuru w’igihugu, yabaye kuya 3 Ukuboza 1965. Kayibanda yatorewe kuyobora u Rwanda manda ya kabiri, ni ukuvuga imyaka ine kugeza mu mwaka w’1969. Muri iki gihe ibitero by’Inyenzi byari bigikorwa ariko byose ingabo z’u Rwanda zikabikumira. Bamwe mu mpirimbanyi za demokarasi nka Mbonyumutwa Dominiko ntibari bakigaragara mu buyobozi bw’igihugu. 

Mu mwaka w’1969 Kayibanda yatorewe kuyobora u Rwanda nka Perezida ku nshuro ya gatatu, kuya 28 Nzeli. Muri iyo manda ye ya gatatu ibyo gutesha abayoboke umurongo, kubera ko bagaragazaga uburyo bunyuranye n’ubw’abayobozi bo hejuru  mu miyoborere y’igihugu, byarakomeje. Hagati aho imvururu zabaye i Burundi mu mwaka w’1972, aho abahutu hafi ya bose bize bahizwe bakanicwa n’ingabo zari zigizwe gusa n’abatutsi, zatumye urwikekwe hagati y’abahutu n’abatutsi mu Rwanda bigaruka. Ku maradiyo y’ibihugu byombi, cyane mu mwaka w’1972 habayeho guterana amagambo ku buryo umuntu yumvaga n’intambara ishobora kuba.

Uretse ibyo kandi, manda ya gatatu ijya kurangira, benshi mu bari bagize Guverinoma wasangaga bakomoka muri Gitarama. Icyo bise “Groupe de Gitarama” cyasaga n’igikorera mu bwiru cyabaye nk’igisimbura perezida Kayibanda, kikajya gifata ibyemezo mu mwanya wa guverinoma. Ni muri urwo rwego, abasirikari bakuru boherejwe kuyobora ibigo by’amashuri n’ibindi bigo bya leta bitagira aho bihuriye n’umwuga wa gisirikari, abategetsi bakuru muri za minisiteri bakavanwa mu nzego zabo, abaminisitiri babakuriye batabizi, ishyirwaho rya ONACO, n’ivanwaho rw’igipolisi cy’igihugu. Imvururu zabaye mu mashuri yisumbuye no muri Iniverisite y’u Rwanda zatumye bamwe mu banyarwanda bahunga. Muri disikuru yavuze kuya 1 Nyakanga 1973, Perezida Kayibanda yavuze ko hari abashaka gukora kudeta, ariko yumvisha ko yiteguye neza. Yagize ati “Iyo kudeta nimuyikore turebe!” Byarabaye kuko kudeta yakozwe mu ijoro ryo ku ya kane rishyira iya 5 Nyakanga 1973. Perezida Kayibanda Geregori yafungiwe i Rwerere ho mu Ruhengeri. Bamwe mu bafasha be ba hafi cyane abanyapolitiki b’i Gitarama bafungirwa mu Ruhengeri.

Kudeta yakozwe n’ingabo z’u Rwanda zimirijwe imbere n’uwari Minisitiri w’ingabo z’igihugu, Jenerali Majoro Habyarimana Yuvenali. Ingabo z’igihugu zashyizeho Komite y’Amahoro n’Ubumwe yari igizwe n’abasirikari bakuru 11 bakomokaga mu turere twose tw’igihugu harimo n’umututsi umwe Koloneri Ruhashya Epimaki. Nyuma y’urubanza rwabaye huti huti,  Kayibanda yafungishijwe ijisho, afungirwa iwe i Kavumu. Benshi mu bari abafasha be biciwe muri gereza ya Ruhengeri mu buryo bunyuranyije n’amategeko. 

Byanditswe na 

Maniragena Valensi

Nzeyimana Ambrozi

 _____________________________________

1 JOC: Jeunesse Ouvrière Catholique.

2 Baudouin Paternostre de la Mairieu: Le Rwanda. Son effort de développement. Antécédents historiques et conquètes de la révolution rwandaise. Editions rwandaises. Kigali (1972), p.391.

3 Kayibanda  Gregoire: “Notre rôle dans la cité” dans L’AMI, n°114, janv.1954

4 Manifesite  y’abahutu  yasinywe  n’aba bakurikira: Kayibanda Geregori, Niyonzima Magisimiliani, Ndahayo Karaveri, Nzeyimana Isidori, Mulindahabi Kaliyopi, Sentama Godifiridi, Munyambonera Silivesitiri, Sibomana Yozefu na Habyarimana Yozefu Gitera

5 Note sur l’aspect social du problème racial indigène au Rwanda

6 Iyo  barwa  yasinywe  n’abari  mu  buyobozi  bwa  “Mouvement  Social  Muhutu”  ari  bo:  Kayibanda  Geregori  wari  President  général,  Niyonzima  Magisimiliyani  Vice-President  général,  Mulindahabi  Kaliyopi  Secrétaire  général  na  Sibomana  Yozefu  wari  Trésorier  général.

7 PARMEHUTU – Parti de l’Emancipation du Muhutu.

8 Uku kutagumishaho umwanya wa minisitiri w’intebe ubangikanye n’uwa perezida byabaye imwe mu mpamvumuzi zatumye demokrasi idashinga imizi neza mu Rwanda.

9 INYENZI – Aloys Ngurumbe, washinze uwo mutwe w’inyeshyamba warugizwe n’abatutsi, yasobanuyeko iryo jambo ari irihinnye ry’ “Ingangurarugo yiyemeze kuba ingenzi”. Ingangurarugo ukaba wari umutwe umwe mu ngabo zari zikomeye z’umwami Rwabugiri. Uwo mutwe INYENZI washingiwe i Kizinga mu Buganda muri 1961.

http://www.mdrwi.org/rapports%20et%20doc/utuntu%20utuntu/inyenzi%20par%20ngurumbe.htm

10 Synergies africaines en Belgique asbl et SOS Rwanda-Burundi asbl, Les violences politiques au Rwanda: De la monarchie à nos jours, Editions Scribe, Bruxelles, 2018; p.54.

11 Uku gusenyuka kw’amashyaka nka APROSOMA na RADER kuri mu mpamvumuzi zaje gutuma Repubulika ya mbere itabasha kugera ku ntego yo kubanisha abanyarwanda batavuga rumwe muri politiki. 

12 Ibid.p.55 [4]

13 Nubwo hari utubazo mu rwego rwa politiki ibikorwa by’amajyambere ntibyabuze kwitabwaho. Ni muri icyo gihe Kaminuza y’u Rwanda yashinzwe (1963), umuco nyarwanda wahawe agaciro ku buryo habaye kongere ya mbere mu rwego rw’igihugu ku muco nyarwanda yabaye kuya 4 Mutarama 1971, aho Kayibanda yasabye guha agaciro urulimi rw’ikinyarwanda.

14 Ibid.p.58 [4]

15 Kanyarengwe Alegisi yagizwe diregiteri wa Seminari nto yitiriwe Mutagatifu Piyo wa X ya Nyundo. Nsekarije Aloyizi agirwa diregiteri w’uruganda rw’icyayi rwo ku Mulindi. 

16 Ibid. p.59 [4]. ONACO: Office National du Commerce. ONACO yagombaga gukusanyiriza hamwe imirimo yo kohereza mu mahanga ibicuruzwa bikomoka mu Rwanda no gutumiza ibikomoka hanze, ikaba ariyo yonyine yari yemerewe kuranguza mu gihugu cyose. 

17 Abasirikari bakuru bagize “Comite pour la Paix et l’Unite Nationale” bakoze kudeta kuya 5 Nyakanga 1973 ni: Jenerali Majoro Habyarimana Yuvenali, Liyetona – Koloneri Kanyarengwe Alegisi, Majoro Benda Sabini, Majoro Buregeya Bonaventura, Majoro Gahimano Fabiyani, Majoro Munyandekwe Yohani Nepomuseni, Majoro Ntibitura Banavantura, Majoro Nsekarije Aloyizi, Majoro Ruhashya Epimaki, Majoro Serubuga Lawurenti, Majoro Simba Aloyizi.

18 Iyicwa ry’aba banyapolitiki ndetse n’iyicwa rubozo rya Prezida Kayibanda waje kwitaba Imana kuya 16 Ukuboza 1976 biri bu byasha Repubulika ya kabiri ya Habyarimana itabashije kwikiza kugeza ivuyeho mu mwaka w’1994.

Sources:

[1] Baudouin Paternostre de la Mairieu: Le Rwanda. Son effort de développement. Antécédents historiques et conquètes de la révolution rwandaise. Editions rwandaises. Kigali (1972).

[2] Kayibanda  Grégoire: “Notre rôle dans la cité” dans L’AMI, n°114, janv.1954.

[3] Entretien avec Ngurumbe Aloys (sur l’origine du terme « Inyenzi »)

(«Twaganiriye na Muzehe Ngurumbe Aloys» par Rangira et Kalinganire, Kanguka n°52, 5èmeannée, 12 février 1992, traduit du kinyarwanda par Eugène Shimamungu)

http://www.mdrwi.org/rapports%20et%20doc/utuntu%20utuntu/inyenzi%20par%20ngurumbe.htm

[4] Synergies africaines en Belgique asbl et SOS Rwanda-Burundi asbl, Les violences politiques au Rwanda: De la monarchie à nos jours, Editions Scribe, Bruxelles, 2018.

Izindi nyandiko zimaze gutangazwa zijyanye n’umushinga “Ibirari by’amateka” ugamije gutangaza ubuzima bw’abanyarwanda bamenyekanye mu kinyejana cya makumyabiri, cyane mu Rwanda ndetse no mu mahanga ni izikurikira:

  1. Amatariki akomeye mu mateka y’u Rwanda mu kinyejana cya makumyabiri – http://www.therwandan.com/ki/amatariki-akomeye-mu-mateka-yu-rwanda-mu-kinyejana-cya-makumyabiri-1-2/
  2. Yuhi V Musingahttp://www.therwandan.com/ki/yuhi-v-musinga/
  3. Mutara III Rudahigwahttp://www.therwandan.com/ki/mutara-iii-rudahigwa/
  4. Mbonyumutwa Dominiko – http://www.therwandan.com/ki/mbonyumutwa-dominiko/
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