Institut Seth Sendashonga: Abanyarwanda bakwiye gushyira ingufu mu gutegura impinduka ikozwe mu mahoro ikavanaho ingoma y’igitugu

Imyaka ibaye 24 Seth Sendashonga yiciwe i Nairobi muri Kenya. Ubwo bwicanyi bwakozwe tariki ya 16 gicurasi 1998 bwategetswe na Paul Kagame nk’uko yabyivugiye ubwe kw’itariki ya 9 werurwe 2019, imbere y’abayobozi bakuru b’igihugu bari mu mwiherero warimo kubera i Gabiro. Muri uwo mwiherero Perezida Paul Kagame yavuze ko, mbere y’iyicwa rye, Sendashonga yari aherutse guhura na bamwe mu basilikare bakuru b’ingabo za Uganda barimo jenerali Salim Saleh, murumuna wa Perezida Yoweri Kaguta Museveni. Yongeyeho ko, kuri we, icyo gikorwa cya Sendashonga cyari “ukurenga umurongo utukura”. Uwo murongo utukura ni imvugo Perezida Kagame akoresha isobanura ko yiyumvamo uburenganzira bwo kwica buri wese igihe abona amubangamiye.

Seth Sendashonga ni umwe mu banyarwanda benshi ingoma ya FPR imaze guhitana bazira ibitekerezo byabo. Kuva akiri umunyeshuri muri kaminuza y’u Rwanda yanditse inyandiko nyinshi arwanya akarengane, ivanguramoko n’ibindi byagaragaraga nk’ibishora gushora igihugu cyacu mu icuraburindi. Ibyo nibyo byamuviriyemo guhunga mu mwaka w’1975. Nyuma yaje gufatanya na FPR mu rugamba yabonaga ko rufite intego yo gucyura impunzi no kunga bya nyabyo abagize umuryango nyarwanda. Aho FPR ifatiye ubutegetsi muri nyakanga 1994 Seth Sendashonga yagizwe ministiri w’ubutegetsi bw’igihugu n’amajyambere ya komini, ahangana n’ibibazo bikomeye by’umutekano. Yaje gusezera kuri uwo mwanya muri kanama 1995 nyuma yo gutangariza mu nama ya guverinoma ko, amaze kwitegereza neza ibyarimo kuba hirya no hino mu gihugu, yemeza ko ibikorwa byo guhungabanya umutekano bitakorwaga n’abantu ku giti cyabo ahubwo byari kuri gahunda kandi bishyigikiwe n’ubuyobozi bw’ingabo zahoze ari iza FPR. Nyuma y’iryo jambo Paul Kagame wari ministiri w’ingabo akaba na visi perezida w’igihugu yahise asohoka mu nama agenda akubita agatoki ku kandi, atangira gucura umugambi wo kumwivugana.

Uwo mugambi wabanje kugeragezwa tariki ya 26 gashyantare 1996 ubwo umusilikare wahoze ari uwo mu ngabo za FPR wakoraga muri ambasade i Nairobi yamurashe akamuhusha agahita afatwa n’abapolisi b’icyo gihugu naho leta y’u Rwanda igahita yiyemeza kugarura uwo mukozi wayo i Kigali kugirango atabazwa n’ubucamanza gusobanura iby’urwo rugomo. Icyo gihe Seth Sendashonga yari ataravugana na ba basilikare bakuru bo mu ngabo za Uganda. Ibi bisobanura ko umugambi wo kumwica warusanzweho. Ibyo Perezida Kagame yavugiye mu mwiherero w’i Gabiro muri 2019 ni uburyo bwo kwemera ko ariwe wamwishe ariko impamvu atanga zo ntabwo arizo. Byongeye kandi kumvikanisha ko ashobora gukatira urwo gupfa uwariwe wese igihe cyose abishakiye kubera ko batabona ibibazo kimwe, ari byo yita kurenga umurongo utukura, ni ikibazo kiremereye buri munyarwanda akwiye kwibazaho.

Nk’uko bisanzwe kuri aya matariki ngarukamwaka twibukaho iyicwa ry’uwo muvandimwe wari n’umubyeyi, inshuti ndetse n’umugabo w’ukuri, ikigo cyamwitiriwe, Institut Seth Sendashonga pour la Citoyenneté Démocratique (Iscid asbl), kiboneyeho umwanya wo kugeza ku banyarwanda aho baherereye hose ndetse no ku nshuti z’u Rwanda ubutumwa bukurikira ku bibazo byugarije u Rwanda kandi byose bikomoka ku ngoma y’igitugu idashakira igihugu amahoro arambye:

1) Hashize iminsi havugwa amasezerano leta y’u Rwanda igirana na bimwe mu bihugu byo ku isi hagamijwe kuzana mu Rwanda impunzi zahungiye muri ibyo bihugu. Iyo ubisesenguye neza usanga icyo leta y’u Rwanda iba ikurikiranye mu isinywa ry’ayo masezerano ari amafranga ibihugu bishaka kwikuraho izo mpunzi bitanga yo kuziherekeza. Amafaranga yonyine! Ni ubucuruzi bw’abantu bwahinduye isura (trafic des êtres humains). Bitabaye ibyo nta kuntu igihugu gito kandi gituwe cyane nk’u Rwanda, byongeye kandi kikaba gikennye, abaturage bacyo benshi, cyane cyane urubyiruko, ari abashomeri, nta kuntu icyo gihugu aricyo cyafata iya mbere kikajya gufata impunzi zo muri Isiraheli, izo muri Libiya, izo muri Afuganistani, izo mu Bwongereza, izo muri Danemark, n’ahandi hazagenda hatangazwa. Ni ibintu birenze ukwemera. Ni ngombwa kwibutsa ko u Rwanda ari kimwe mu bihugu bifite umubare munini w’impunzi ku isi (impunzi z’abanyarwanda ziri mu mahanga), kandi uwo mubare ukaba udasiba kwiyongera. Kuva FPR yafata ubutegetsi nta cyemezo na kimwe yari yafata kigamije guhumuriza izo mpunzi ngo zitahe mu gihugu cyazo zizeye kuhagira umutekano uhagije, zizeye no kuhabonera amahirwe yo kwibeshaho angana n’ay’abandi baturage. Leta y’u Rwanda yavuga ite ko ifite ubugwaneza bwo kwakira impunzi zo mu bindi bihugu itaracyemura ikibazo cy’abanyarwanda bahungiye hafi yayo, mu mashyamba ya Kongo, abari mu nkambi z’impunzi mu bindi bihugu by’Afurika ndetse n’abandi babarizwa ku migabane yose y’isi? Igitangaje cyane kandi giteye agahinda nukubona ibyo bihugu bisinyana n’u Rwanda ayo masezerano y’urukozasoni bizi neza uko ibibazo by’u Rwanda biteye, bikaba ahubwo bisa n’ibyishimiye ko ibyo ubutegetsi bw’igitugu bwemeje nta rwego rundi rwo muri icyo gihugu ruba rwabivuguruza kuko nta mudepite ukoma, nta muturage ukopfora, keretse abihararutswe nabo akenshi bakabiryozwa. Ibyo bihugu byari bikwiye ahubwo gufasha abanyarwanda bandagaye hirya no hino ku isi kubona uburyo bwiza bwo gutaha mu rwababyaye, u Rwanda rukareka kuba igihugu abaturage bacyo bahunga.

2) Mu myaka ibiri iri imbere mu Rwanda hateganijwe amatora y’umukuru w’igihugu. Perezida Paul Kagame azaba amaze imyaka 24 kuri uwo mwanya, kongeraho imyaka 6 yamaze ari visiperida ariko mu by’ukuri akaba ariwe warufite ijambo rya nyuma muri byose. Ni igihe rwose cyo gutekereza ko impinduka ari ngombwa. Birababaje kuba, magingo aya, hari abanyapolitiki n’abanyamakuru ndetse n’abaturage basanzwe bafunzwe bazira ko bavuze ku mugaragaro icyo gitekerezo cyangwa ko bashishikarije rubanda guharanira impinduka. Institut Seth Sendashonga iboneyeho umwanya wo kongera gutangaza ko ishyigikiye gahunda yo guharanira impinduka mu nzira y’amahoro yatangajwe n’abanyapolitiki babiri basanzwe bakorera mu Rwanda, bo muri DALFA Umurinzi (ishyaka ryasabye uburenganzira bwo gukora ku mugaragaro rikaba rikibutegereje) na PS Imberakuri. Mu nyandiko bise “Urwandiko rw’inzira” bakaba barayitangaje tariki ya mbere nyakanga 2021 basabye ubutegetsi bwa FPR kwirinda kugwa mu mutego w’ababubanjirije, bakemera ibiganiro n’abo batabona ibintu kimwe ku bibazo nyamukuru byugarije igihugu. Ibyo bikaba bisaba mbere na mbere ko ubwo butegetsi bufungura urubuga rwa politiki bityo abanyarwanda, baba abari imbere mu gihugu, baba abari mu mahanga, bagatanga umusanzu wabo nta nkomyi. Ntidushidikanya ko ibitekerezo bikubiye muri urwo rwandiko rw’inzira ari umusanzu ukomeye mu gushakira igihugu ejo hazaza heza, igihugu kibasha gusigasira ibyiza byagezweho, kigakosora iby’amateka yagiye agoreka.

3) Muri iyi myaka 28 ishize FPR iyobora igihugu, umubano w’u Rwanda n’ibihugu birukikije uko ari bine waranzwe kenshi n’amakimbirane. Ibyari ubuhahirane bwambuka imipaka ndetse n’urujya n’uruza rw’abaturage binjira cyangwa basohoka mu gihugu byarahungabanye cyane bitewe n’ayo makimbirane yatumye imipaka ifungwa. Byageze n’ubwo abategetsi bavuga ko kujya gushaka imirimo cyangwa guhaha mu kindi gihugu ari ukujya guhunahuna. Bamwe mu baturage bararashwe, barapfa, bazira ko babaga bikoreye udufuka tw’ibigori cyangwa ibindi bicuruzwa bakuye i Bugande. Muri iki gihe agahenge gahari katurutse ku bayobozi ba Uganda bahagurutse bakaza kwinginga abategetsi b’u Rwanda kugirango imipaka ifungurwe abaturage babashe kongera guhahirana. Nta na rimwe leta y’u Rwanda yigeze igerageza gufata iya mbere kugirango ijye gushaka inzira zo gukemura icyo kibazo.

Mu mwanya wo kwiyunga n’abaturanyi leta y’u Rwanda yohereje ingabo kurwana mu bihugu badahuje imipaka, nka Santarafurika na Mozambike. Aho hose, wongeyeho n’abarwana mu mitwe y’inyeshyamba nka M23 n’indi iyogoza uburasirazuba bwa kongo , ni abana b’u Rwanda bahatanga ubuzima bwabo hejuru y’inyungu zidasobanutse mu gihe nta rwego na rumwe ruhagarariye abaturage ruba rwabimenyeshejwe. Abagwa muri izo ntambara bashyingurwa he? imiryango yabo ifashwa ite? Ibyo byose ni ibibazo abashora izo ngabo mu mirwano yo hirya no hino baba bakwiye gusobanura. Abanyarwanda bakwiye kuzirikana ko iyi politiki yo kwigira igihangange mu karere no muri Afurika yose amaherezo ishobora kubyarira u Rwanda akarambaraye.

4) Ubucamanza bw’ubufaransa buherutse gutangaza ko iperereza bumaze imyaka irenga 20 bukora ku ihanurwa ry’indege yaguyemo ba perezida Yuvenali Habyarimana w’u Rwanda na Sipiriyani Ntaryamira w’u Burundi hamwe n’abo bari kumwe, ku ya 6 mata 1994, ryafashe ubusa (« non lieu »). Twibutse ko ihanurwa ry’iriya ndege abantu benshi barifata nk’igikorwa cyabaye imbarutso ya jenoside yakorewe abatutsi n’ubundi bwicanyi bwahitanye abantu batagira ingano (abanyarwanda n’abanyamahanga), guhera tariki ya 7 mata 1994. Birakwiye kumva ko iryo perereza ryatangijwe n’umucamanza Jean Louis Brugière ritapfuye ubusa kuko hari ibimenyetso byinshi kandi bikomeye ryashyize ahagaragara, rikaba ndetse ryarakusanyije bumwe mu buhamya abandi bashobora kuzifashisha mu gihe bizaba bishoboka gukomeza iryo perereza. Muri urwo rwego Institut Seth Sendashonga irashishikariza abanyarwanda n’abarundi ndetse n’abandi bakunda ukuri n’ubutabera kunga amajwi yabo bagasaba umuryango w’abibumye (LONI) gushyiraho komisiyo mpuzamahanga igomba kwerekana abagize uruhare muri kiriya gikorwa cy’iterabwoba. Nta handi mu mateka y’isi amarorerwa nk’ariya yateje amakuba akomeye yakozwe ngo bibure kugira ingaruka ku bayakoze. Tuboneyeho kongera gusaba ko mu rwego rwo kurwanya umuco wo kudahana no kubaka inkingi z’amahoro arambye mu karere k’ibiyaga bigari ubwicanyi bwakorewe mu burasirazuba bwa Kongo hagati y’1993 na 2003, ubwo bwicanyi bukaba bwarakorewe iperereza ryimbitse ryatangajwe mu nyandiko ndende bise « mapping report » yo mu ukwakira 2010, ko bwashyirirwaho urukiko mpuzamahanga rufite ububasha bwo guhana ababugizemo uruhare. Amateka yerekana ko umuco wo kudahana ari moteri ya politiki z’igitugu n’urugomo byayogoje akarere muri rusange n’u Rwanda ku buryo bw’umwihariko.

Bikorewe i Buruseli, ku ya 15/05/2022

Jean Claude Kabagema
ISCID asbl

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