Kuki Macron ashakira agahenge Kagame kandi abanyarwanda banyotewe n’impinduka?

Raporo yashyizwe ahagaragara na komisiyo y’impuguke mu by’amateka ku ruhare rwa leta y’ubufaransa muri jenoside yakorewe abatutsi ni nk’agaseke Perezida Emmanuel Macron yateguriye mugenzi we w ‘u Rwanda, Paul Kagame, agamije kumuhendahenda ngo amureke bakorane ku mpamvu z’uko ubufaransa busanga guhangana n’u Rwanda aribwo bubihomberamo. Ikiri muri ako gaseke ni uruvange rw’amateka yabaye hiyongeyeho n’ibidafite gihamya ndetse bishobora no kuba atari ukuri ariko bikaba bihawe umugisha n’impuguke zikomeye mu by’amateka. Ubyitegereje neza ako gaseke karasa n’aho gashaka guhesha agahenge umunyagitugu warumaze kuba ruvumwa mu Rwanda no mu mahanga, dore ko amaraporo amwamagana adahwema gusohoka, tutavuze n’ibitabo bya hato na hato bitamucira akari urutega. Abanyarwanda, mu nkundura barimo yo guharanira impinduka, ntibakwiye kwemera ko abafaransa bongera kubigirizaho nkana, babatesha igihe.

Iyo raporo yakozwe na komisiyo yari iyobowe na Bwana Vincent Duclert ivuga ko igihugu cy’ubufaransa cyagize uruhare rukomeye muri iyo jenoside, ko cyafashije ubutegetsi bwa Habyarimana bwagenderaga ku ngengabitekerezo y’ivangura ry’amoko, ubutegetsi bwarimo gutegura jenoside ku buryo bugaragara. Iyo raporo ivuga kandi ko abafaransa ku giti cyabo batakoze jenoside, ngo nta n’ubufatanyacyaha babigizemo, ariko ibi ntibisobanutse neza mu gihe bemera ko bahaye intwaro leta bashinja ko yarimo gutegura jenoside, bakaba bemera ko iby’iyo myiteguro bari babizi. N’ubwo amakosa yose ashyirwa kuri nyakwigendera François Mitterrand wayoboraga ubufaransa muri icyo gihe cy’intambara hagati ya FPR na guverinoma y’u Rwanda birumvikana ko icyaha cyakozwe na leta y’ubufaransa kandi impuguke zabo nizo zibyiyemerera.

Ese abafaransa bazemera kwikorezwa urusyo cyangwa Macron arakina mu bikomeye ?

Ntibyoroshye kumenya niba urwo rusyo Perezida Emmanuel Macron yikoreje igihugu cye abafaransa bamutoye bazemera kurwikorera cyangwa niba bazamureka akarwikorera wenyine. Aha ndashaka kuvuga ko kiriya cyemezo gikomeye gishobora kugira ingaruka za politiki, nko kuba zatuma Macron abura amajwi mu matora ateganijwe umwaka utaha. Twakwibutsa ko urukiko mpanabyaha rwashyiriweho gucira imanza abagize uruhare muri jenoside yo mu Rwanda rutigeze rwerekana ibimenyetso by’uko leta ya Habyarimana yarimo gutegura jenoside. Urukiko rwari rufite ubushobozi bwo kubona amakuru menshi rwahabwaga n’abashinjacyaha, abashinjwaga, impuguke zinyuranye zatumizwaga, abatangabuhamya baturukaga imihanda yose, bamwe bafasha ubushinjacyaha abandi bafasha ababuranyi. Komisiyo y’impuguke z’ubufaransa yo ngo yagendeye ku nyandiko za leta y’ubufaransa gusa, nta n’ubwo yashoboye kubaza abo ishinja ko bateguye jenoside kugirango basobanure ibibavugwaho. Nk’uko benshi mu basesengura ibya politiki babivuze iyi komisiyo yashyiriweho impamvu za politiki. Leta y’ubufaransa yari ifitanye umubano mubi cyane n’ubutegetsi bwashyizweho na FPR kuva mu w’1994 ku buryo mu w’2007 igifaransa cyahagaritswe kuba ururimi rwakoreshwaga mu burezi no mu butegetsi mu Rwanda hose (byagize ingaruka ziremereye ku burezi bwasubiye inyuma cyane, bituma n’abaturage bize mu gifaransa bacupira). Twakwibutsa ko guhera mu w’2015 ubufaransa budafite ambasaderi wabwo mu Rwanda. Hagati aho na kaminuza y’i Nyakinama yubatswe ku nkunga ya leta y’ubufaransa yagizwe ishuri rya gisilikare naho inzu yaberagamo ibikorwa ndangamuco by’ubufaransa n’u Rwanda nayo yarasenywe ku mpamvu ngo zo gutunganya umujyi wa Kigali (niko leta y’u Rwanda yabisobanuye ariko ababivugaga babaga bica ijisho). Ubwo haba hari n’izindi ngaruka nko mu bucuruzi, ubutabera, umutekano, n’ibindi.

Ikindi twakwibutsa nuko mu mwaka wa 2006 leta y’u Rwanda yashyizeho komisiyo yo kwiga uruhare rw’ubufaransa muri jenoside yakorewe abatutsi. Iyo komisiyo yari iyobowe n’uwitwa Jean de Dieu Mucyo (ari n’aho byavuye kuyita komisiyo Mucyo) yatangaje raporo yayo ku ya 5 kanama 2008, ikaba igaragara nk’ uburyo leta y’u Rwanda yabonye bwo guhangana na raporo y’umucamanza w’ubufaransa witwa Jean Louis Bruguière yasohotse tariki ya 26 ugushyingo 2006, ikaba yarashinjaga Kagame na bamwe mu basilikare bo hejuru ba FPR kuba baragize uruhare mu iraswa ry’indege ya Habyarimana, bikaba aribyo byabaye imbarutso ya jenoside. Izo zose ni ingero z’ibyaranze uwo mubano mubi hagati y’ubufaransa n’u Rwanda.

Raporo y’abafaransa irasa n’ikingira ikibaba umunyagitugu Kagame

Kuba ubufaransa bwiyemereye ko bwatsinzwe intambara bwarwanaga mu Rwanda (niko byanditse mu mwanzuro wa raporo), ndetse bukaba bwishinja kugira uruhare rukomeye muri jenoside yakorewe abatutsi ni inkuru nziza kuri Kagame n’abambari be kuko imbaraga bashyiraga mu guhangana n’icyo gihugu cy’igihangange zigiye gukoreshwa ibindi. Byongeye kandi utsinzwe ntabura iminyago bamukuraho cyangwa impozamarira. Buriya hari ibyo ubufaransa buzaha u Rwanda haba mu byo bazita inkunga cyangwa imfashanyo (amafaranga) cyangwa izindi nkunga za politiki. Iby’inkunga ya politiki byo byaranatangiye kuva Macron yagera ku butegetsi (urugero: Louise Mushikiwabo kuyobora Francophonie) ariko biraboneka ko mu minsi iri imbere bizarushaho kugira ingufu. Vincent Duclert ubwo yarashyiriye Kagame iriya raporo twamwumvise mu itangazamakuru ahakana ko inkotanyi zitigeze zikora jenoside y’abahutu. Bityo akaba afashe raporo yiswe mapping report akaba asa n’uyitwitse yose uko yakabaye. Iyo mapping report yakozwe n’impuguke za Loni zaturutse mu bihugu binyuranye kandi zayikora nyuma y’ iperereza ryarengeje umwaka wose aho zazengurutse uturere twowe ubwicanyi bwabereyemo, binyuze mu matsinda atanu zari ziganyijemo. Uriya Ducrert yakwemeza ate ko FPR nta jenoside yakoreye abahutu ko bitari no mu nshingano za komisiyo yarayoboye ? Twibutse ko abakoze mapping report nabo batemeje ko ubwicanyi bwakozwe ari jenoside ariko bavuga ko bushobora kwitwa gutyo bikozwe n’urukiko rubifitiye ububasha. Icyo rero basabye nuko urwo rukiko rwazashyirwaho.

Iyo mapping report yasohotse muri 2010, irwanywa byimazeyo n’abashyigikiye ubutegetsi bwa FPR ku buryo yaje gusigara ari ibipapuro gusa, ndetse yarimaze gusa n’iyibagiranye kugeza ubwo Docteur Denis Mukwege yafashe ijambo agiye guhabwa Prix Nobel, muri 2018, akavuga ko urugomo rurimo kubera muri Kongo rutazagira iherezo igihe cyose nta rukiko rwashyizweho rwo gukurikirana abakoze ubwicanyi buvugwa muri mapping report. Nyuma habonetse abandi bashyigikira icyo gitekerezo ku buryo n’inteko ishinga amategeko y’umuryango w’ibihugu by’iburayi yasabye ko hashyirwaho urukiko rwo gukurikirana ibyaha bivugwa muri iyo raporo. Ni mu gihe kuko hari n’igitabo gikomeye cyanditswe n’umunyamakuru w’umunyakanada witwa Judi Rever (In praise of blood mu cyongereza cyangwa L’éloge du sang mu gifaransa) nacyo cyatanzwemo ubuhamya buremereye cyane bwerekana ko ingabo za FPR zakoze ubwicanyi buteye inkeke haba mu Rwanda haba no muri Kongo. Icyo gitabo cyandikanye ubuhanga kandi cyasabye uriya mugore wacyanditse ubwitange bukomeye ku buryo uwariwe wese ugisomye yibaza ukuntu perezida Kagame akomeza guhabwa ibyubahiro ngo yahagaritse jenoside y’abatutsi kandi yarayikurikije indi jenoside yakoreye abahutu ndetse akica n’abaturage benshi ba Kongo.

2020 : umwaka Paul Kagame atazibagirwa

Umwaka ushiza we 2020 watangiye Perezida Kagame ahanganye n’icyo kibazo cyo gushinjwa ubwicanyi bushobora kuzitwa jenoside. Hakurikiyeho ihotorwa rya Kizito Mihigo, umucikacumi w’ikirangirire kubera ubuhanzi bwe no kubera ibikorwa byo kunga abanyarwanda yari yaratangiye. Ibyo byaje byibutsa ubundi buhotozi bwagiye bukorwa n’iriya ngoma harimo ubw’umucuruzi witwaga Rwigara Assinapol bwakurikiwe no gusenya inzu ye y’umutamenwa yari ifite inenge yo kuba ngo yari yegereye urugo rwa Kagame (urwo mu Kiyovu). Ibyo kandi byakurikiraga ibikorwa byo gusenyera abaturage mu nkengero z’umujyi wa Kigali, ahitwa muri Bannyahe, ari nabyo byahagurukije umwe mu banyapolitiki ukorera imbere mu gihugu, Bwana Barafinda Sekikubo Fred, maze arahaguruka n’imizi n’imiganda yamagana kuri You Tube icyo yise akarengane k’ibihekane. Uwo Barafinda yatawe muri yombi abanza gukorerwa iyicarubozo ariko aho gushyikirizwa ubutabera (babitinyiye ko nta bimenyetso bimushinja bajyaga kubona) bamujyana mu bitaro by’i Ndera aho bavurira ibisazi. Rubanda rwibajije niba umusazi ari Barafinda cyangwa niba umusazi nyawe ari uwarimo gukora urugomo nk’urwo Barafinda ndetse n’umugore we, Mukantaho Marie Louise (First Lady), barimo kwamagana.

Ni muri icyo gihe ubutegetsi bwa FPR bwarimo kuvugirizwa induru hadutse icyorezo cya covid 19 cyakwiriye isi yose, kigeze mu Rwanda hafatwa ibyemezo bikakaye cyane byo guheza abaturage mu ngo zabo, kandi mu by’ukuri hari benshi badashobora kubaho batabashije kuva mu ngo zabo ngo bajye gukora. Ibyemezo nk’ibyo byarafatwaga mu bihugu by’iburayi (na n’ubu biracyafatwa) ariko biherekezwa n’ibindi byemezo bijyana no gufasha abaturage kubaho mu gihe icyorezo kitaracogora kugirango basubire gutungwa n’imirimo yabo. Mu Rwanda ho abaturage bahejejwe mu ngo, ahasigaye abategetsi baruma gihwa. Uwitwa umukuru w’igihugu arabura pe…kugezwa ubwo havutse igihuha kivuga ko yarwaye covid, bukeye ndetse haboneka umunyapolitiki ukorera mu buhungiro watangaje ko abizi neza ko Kagame yapfuye byarangiye ! Erega koko abantu benshi barabihererekanya kuri You Tube. Hagati aho Kagame yongeye kugaruka mu itangazamakuru, akuraho abaministiri n’abaguverineri bamwe ari nako ashyiraho abandi cyangwa abarahiza ariko ntaboneke mu ruhame rw’abantu benshi. Byatumye ibya rwa rupfu rwe bishidikanywaho ariko nanone abantu bakibaza icyabaye gituma atakigaragara nka mbere. Ni uburwayi se ? Ni ugutinya covid se ? Ibyo byose ni ibibazo abantu bakomeje kwibaza. Ntibyabujije abavuga ko yapfuye gukomeza kubivuga, basa n’aho bateganya ko amaherezo wenda indwara izamuhitana bakavuga ko yapfuye kera bikagirwa ibanga.

Igihe abantu bari bahugiye muri izo mpuha umunyapolitiki witwa Paul Rusesabagina yaje gufatirwa i Dubai, apakirwa indege mu buryo bw’amanyanga yibeshye ko imujyanye i Burundi, bukeye yisanga i Kigali mu maboko y’abapolisi bari mutegereje. Byose byari byapanzwe n’ubutegetsi bw’i Kigali bukoresheje uwitwa Musenyeri Constantin Niyomwungere. Muri rusange icyo gikorwa cyo gutwara Rusesabagina mu Rwanda muri ubwo buryo amahanga yagifashe nk’ubushimusi, bikaba ari icyaha mu mategeko mpuzamahanga. Hibukijwe ubutwari yagize muri jenoside yakorewe abatutsi, hibutswa n’imidari myinshi yabonye kubera icyo gikorwa, harimo n’uwo yahawe na Georges W. Bush wari perezida wa Leta Zunze ubumwe z’Amerika. Mu mvugo iremereye cyane Inteko Ishinga Amategeko y’umuryango w’ibihugu by’iburayi wamaganye iryo shimuta, isaba ko Rusesabagina ufite ubwenegihugu bw’ububiligi arekurwa akagaruka mu Bubiligi, akaba ariho aburanishirizwa. Muri Amerika naho abadepite n’abasenateri barenga 30 bandikiye Kagame ibaruwa bamubwira gumufungura kandi bibutsa n’ubutwari yagize bwatumye ahabwa uburenganzira bwo gutura muri Amerika nk’umutrurage waho, akaga adakwiriye kugaraguzwa agati mu Rwanda.

Perezida Kagame yabaye nk’urimo kunyagirwa n’imvura y’amahindu kuko muri icyo gihe yamaganwaga kubera ubwo bushimusi, i Genève hateraniye inama y’umuryango w’abibumye ishinzwe uburenganzira bw’ikiremwamuntu yamagana mu magambo tutari tumenyereye ubutegetsi bw’igitugu buri mu Rwanda, yamagana ibikorwa by’ubwicanyi, kunyereza abantu, kwica urubozo n’ibindi byinshi birimo kubuza abantu ubwisanzure, gutoteza abanyamakuru no kuniga demokarasi. Igitangaje cyane nuko ibihugu nka Leta Zunze Ubumwe z’Amerika n’Ubwongereza, ari nabyo byari ku isonga mu gushyigikira ubutegetsi bwa Kagame kuva mu w’1994, byakoresheje amagambo atyaye cyane ku buryo ababyumva bibazaga niba hatari ikindi kirimo gutegurwa.

Ibi nibyo bibazo Perezida Kagame yarwanaga nabyo, hiyongereyeho ingaruka za covid 19 ku bukungu bw’u Rwanda bwakubise inkoro hasi bitewe n’uko Kigali itagifite uburyo bwo kwakira urujya n’uruza rw’abantu barimo ba mukerarugendo cyangwa abazanywe n’ubucuruzi bw’amabuye y’agaciro aturuka muri Kongo, ndetse n’abazaga mu manama mpuzamahanga yakorerwaga muri wa mutamenwa bise Kigali Convention Center. Birumvikana ko hari byinshi iki cyorezo gishobora kuzasiga gihungabanije ku buryo byagira ingaruka ku buzima bw’igihugu no ku buyobozi bwacyo. Ni muri urwo rwego umunyarwandakazi warusanzwe atuye i Kigali yatinyutse ibintu bidasanwe, ajya kuri You Tube ahamagarira guhaguruka gukuraho ubutegetsi bwa FPR. Uwo mubyeyi w’abana 4,

Idamange Iryamugwiza Ivona, yabitewe n’uko umwuka uri mu Rwanda muri iki gihe ari uwo gushaka impinduka. Iryo jambo « impinduka » kurivuga mu myaka yashize byari nko guca umugani ariko ubu niyo ntero n’inyikirizo ku mbuga nkoranyambaga mu gihe abarengera ubutegetsi buriho basa n’abasigaranye iturufu imwe kandi yahararutswe, iturufu yitwa gupfobya jenoside yakorewe abatutsi, ariko bagahura n’ingorane z’uko abanenga ubutegetsi basigaye babonekamo n’abacikacumu benshi (cyane cyane nyuma y’iyicwa rya Kizito Mihigo).

Impunzi zirenga miliyoni zinyotewe n’impinduka kugirango zitahe

Intege nke ubutegetsi bwa FPR bwarimo kugenda bugaragaza ituruka na none ku barwanya ubwo butegetsi bari mu bihugu byinshi byo ku isi. Iyo opozisiyo y’impunzi ikaba igenda irushaho kugira imbaraga bitewe n’umubare w’impunzi wiyongereye cyane (hari abavuga ko zaba zikabakaba cyangwa zirenga miliyoni imwe), zikaba ndetse zifashisha ikoranabuhanga ku buryo gutumanaho hagati yazo bisigaye byoroshye ndetse n’imbuga nkoranyambaga zikaba zibafasha guhana amakuru ku buryo bwihuse. Ibi nibyo byafashije mu gushinga urwego ruhuza amashyaka n’amashyirahamwe yo hirya no hino ku isi, RBB, bikaba bigaragara (wenda biracyari icyifuzo) nk’intambwe ikomeye mu guhuza abanyarwanda baba mu bihugu binyuranye, bahunze mu bihe binyuranye , ku mpamvu zinyuranye kandi b’amoko anyuranye. Muri ayo mashyaka agize opozisiyo harimo n’afite imitwe y’ingabo yiyemeje no kubwiza Kagame ururimo yemera kumva. Igihe kimwe wumva barimo kwivuga ibigwi berekana ku mbuga nkoranyambaga amashusho ateye ubwoba y’ibyabereye ku rugamba, ikindi gihe akaba ari leta y’u Rwanda nayo yivuga ibigwi. Ubu hari n’abafatiwe ku rugamba barimo kuburana mu nkiko z’i Kigali.

Ngibyo ibyo abanyarwanda bahugiyemo. Tugarutse kuri iriya raporo y’abafaransa twavuze ko igaragara nk’igikoresho cyo kugarura umubano mwiza hagati y’ubutegetsi bwa Paul Kagame na leta y’ubufaransa mu by’ukuri nta kamaro ifitiye abanyarwanda kuri urwo rugamba rwo guharanira impinduka benshi banyotewe kuko ntishyira imbere ukuri. Wasobanura ute ko Habyarimana wemeye gusinya amasezerano ya Arusha, akemera gushyira bataillon ya FPR mu nzu y’umutamenwa yari icyicaro cy’inteko ishinga amategeko, ibyo yabikoze arimo no gutegura kurimbura abatutsi ? Wasobanura ute ko iriya raporo inyerera ku kibazo cy’iraswa ry’indege ya Habyarimana ryabaye imbarutso ya jenoside ahubwo igasa n’iyumvikanisha ko abarashe indege aribo bateguye jenoside ? Ko ubutegetsi bwa Habyarimana bwagenderaga ku irondakoko, ese ubwa FPR bwifashe bute ? Usomye iriya raporo agirango iby’ubu ni shyashya kandi nyamara irondakoko ririho ubu naryo rikwiye kwamaganwa. Raporo y’abafaransa ije ishaka kubwira isi yose ko Kagame washinjwaga ubwicanyi n’andi marorerwa menshi ari intwari yahagaritse jenoside. Uriya Vincent Duclert yageze i Kigali asobanura ko abo FPR yishe atari ibintu bikomeye, ngo ni représailles, bisobanura ko ari impamvu z’uburakari ariko bitari bigambiriwe. Ubu koko umuntu yavuga ate ko kurasa abaturage 8000 umunsi umwe (Kibeho tariki ya 21 mata 1995), ukoresheje imbunda z’intambara, za katiyusha n’andi mabombe ndetse na za grenades nabyo byakwitwa igikorwa gidakabije cy’uburakari ?

Bruxelles, le 12/04/2021

Nkuliyingoma Jean Baptiste

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