Rwanda: amavidewo yatangajwe yatumye bamwe bafatwa abandi bakurikiranwa mu nkiko

Hakenewe impinduka zihuse muri iki gihe kiri hafi y’inama y’Ibihugu bihuriye ku rurimi rw’Icyongereza(Commonwealth) 

Raporo ya Human Rights Watch, Mutarama 2021

Yahinduwe na Arnold Gakuba 

Umuryango uharanira uburenganzira bwa muntu (Human Rights Watch) wavuze ko hashize mwaka, ubutegetsi bw’u Rwanda butera ubwoba, buta muri yombi kandi bukurikirana nibura abantu umunani bavuze cyangwa batanze ibitekerezo ku bibazo biriho ubu mu Rwanda kuri YouTube. Umusizi watangaje imivugo ye kuri YouTube yaburiwe irengero ku itariki ya  7 Gashyantare 2021.

Mu gihe u Rwanda rwitegura kwakira inama y’abakuru b’ibihugu bigize Umuryango wa Commonwealth muri Kamena, ubuyobozi bw’u Rwanda bugomba guhita bahagarika ihohoterwa burekura abatanga ibitekerezo kuri YouTube ndetse n’abanyambuga bakurikiranywe mu buryo butemewe n’amategeko kuko uburenganzira bwabo bwo gutanga ibitekerezo bwabangamiwe kandi bukavanaho ibirego byose bubashinja. Ubuyobozi bugomba kandi gutangiza iperereza ryizewe, ryigenga kandi rinyuze mu mucyo ku ibura n’impfu zikekwa z’abanenga, abatavuga rumwe n’ubutegetsi, abakorera sosiyete sivile n’abanyamakuru, kandi ababigizemo uruhare bagashyikirizwa ubutabera.

Umuyobozi wa Afurika yo hagati muri Human Rights Watch, Lewis Mudge yasobanuye ko: “Hari umubare munini mu Rwanda werekana kutorohera no kwihorera  bikabije bikorerwa abanenga ubutegetsi, ibyo bikaba bitera impungenge z’umutekano w’abasura imbuga ndetse n’abatanga ibitekerezo byabo.” Yakomeje agira ati: “Umuryango wa Commonwealth ntukwiye kwirengagiza ihohoterwa ry’abaharanira demokarasi kandi ugomba guhatira ubuyobozi bw’u Rwanda gushyira mu bikorwa ivugurura rikenewe mu rwego rwo kurengera ubwisanzure mu gutanga ibitekerezo.

Muri Gashyantare na Werurwe, Human Rights Watch yaganiriye n’abantu barindwi batanga ibitekerezo ku mbuga nkoranyambaga n’abanyamakuru b’abanyarwanda, hamwe n’abandi batangabuhamya icyenda bakomoka mu miryango yabahuye n’ibibazo cyangwa babifiteho amakuru. Abashakashatsi ba Human Rights Watch banasuzumye kandi amategeko, inyandiko z’urukiko, disikuru mbwirwaruhame, hamwe n’imbuga nkoranyambaga abaregwa banyujijeho ibitekerezo byabo. N’ubwo iyi raporo ituzuye neza, yibanze ku manza Human Rights Watch yashoboye kugenzura. Amakuru amwe ateye impungenge ntiyashyizwemo mu rwego rwo kurinda umutekano wa ba nyirayo ngo batagirirwa nabi n’ubutegetsi bw’u Rwanda. 

YouTube yararwanijwe cyane kuko yagaragaje imbaraga mu kuvuga yemye mu Rwanda. Muri ino myaka yashize, nyuma y’uko bababazwa no kutajya impaka mu bitangazamakuru, bamwe mu banyambuga n’abatanga ibitekerezo b’abanyarwanda bafashe iya mbere mu gukoresha urubuga rwa You Tube bashyiraho amashusho avuga ku bibazo by’ingutu byugarije umurayngo nyarwanda kandi bakaganira no ku bibazo bimwe na bimwe bitavugwaho rumwe birimo kwirukanwa kw’abaturage mu duce dukennye mu murwa mukuru wa Kigali no gushyiraho guma mu rugo ikakaye ndetse no gufunga amashuri kuva muri Werurwe kugeza m’Ugushyingo 2020 ngo bakumire Koronavirusi.

Ku itariki 9 Gashyantare 2021, uwitwa Innocent Bahati, umuririmbyi n’umusizi w’imyaka 31 yaburiwe irengero. Ibyo byamenyeshejwe ibiro bishinzwe iperereza mu Rwanda (RIB) ubwo hari hashize iminsi ibiri agaragaye i Nyanza, mu ntara y’amajyepfo. Imivugo ye yasohoye muri videwo yashyizwe kuri YouTube, ivuga ku bibazo byugarije abaturage cyane cyane kwiyongera k’ubukene ndetse na guma mu rugo n’ingaruka zayo. Abantu babiri bamubonye mbere yo kubura, babwiye Human Rights Watch ko yasuye Akarere ka Nyanza ku ya 7 Gashyantare kugira ngo akore ubushakashatsi ku gisigo gishya yari agiye gusohora. Umuvugizi wa RIB yabwiye itangazamakuru ko iperereza rigikorwa kugira ngo bamenye aho aherereye.

Amakuru atandukanye agaragaza ko Innocent Bahati yari yarafunzwe mu 2017 azira kunenga icyemezo cyo kwimura ikigo cy’Ishuri Rikuru rya Kigali ryigisha uburezi kivanywa mu murwa mukuru kikajyanywa i Rukara mu Ntara y’Iburasirazuba. Human Rights Watch ivuga ko urebye ifungwa rya Innocent Bahati, wari uherutse kunenga politiki ya guverinoma, ndetse no kubura mu buryo butunguranye kw’abanenga guverinoma y’u Rwanda, wakeka icyihishe inyuma ry’ibura rye.

Ku itariki ya 19 Werurwe 2021, Human Rights Watch yandikiye Minisitiri w’Ubutabera Johnston Busingye kugira ngo atange iamakuru ku byo wari umaze kumva birimo ibura rya Innocent Bahati, no gusaba amakuru ku ngamba zafashwe n’ubuyobozi bw’u Rwanda ku bijyanye no kuvutswa uburenganzira bwo gutanga ibitekerezo, nyamara kugerza ubu guverinoma y’u Rwanda ntiyigeze igira icyo isubiza.

Muri Mata 2020, abapolisi bataye muri yombi abanyambuga bane n’umushoferi bakorera imbuga za YouTube zo mu Rwanda bakoze inkuru ku ngaruka z’amabwiriza ya Koronavirusi ku baturage batishoboye. Ifatwa ryabo ryagaragaje zimwe mu ingamba zo kwihorera kandi batatu muri bo bahise bajyanywa mu nkiko. Dieudonné Niyonsenga uzwi ku izina rya “Cyuma Hassan”, nyiri Ishema TV, ndetse n’umushoferi we Fidèle Komezusenge bashinjwaga gukoresha impapuro mpimbano biyita abanyamakuru no kubangamira imirimo rusange, nyamara baje kugirwa abere ku itariki ya 12 Werurwe 2021. Théoneste Nsengimana, nyiri Umubavu TV yafunzwe by’agateganyo ashinjwa uburiganya ariko nawe yaje kurekurwa muri Gicurasi 2020 nyuma y’uko aburirwa ibimenyetso.

Nubwo bishimishije ko nta n’umwe muri abo bose wahamwe n’ibyaha, haracyagaragara guhohotera no gushyira iterabwoba ku bagaragaza ibibazo by’ingutu byugarije abaturage. Amategeko y’u Rwanda asobanura mu buryo bwumvikana ko umunyamakuru ari “umuntu wese ufite ubumenyi bw’ibanze bw’abanyamakuru kandi ukora umwuga w’itangazamakuru nk’umwuga we w’ibanze,” ibi bikaba binyuranije n’amahame mpuzamahanga kuko byemerera Leta gukurikirana abanyambuga nkoranyambaga batangaje inkuru zifite inyungu rusange ku bijyanye n’ingamba Guverinoma yafashe kubera icyirezo cya Koronavirusi.

Banki y’isi ivuga ko ubukungu bw’u Rwanda ari bumwe mu bwibasiwe cyane n’icyorezo cya Koronavirusi muri Afurika yo munsi y’Ubutayu bwa Sahara kubera ingamba zikakaye zo kugikumira bityo bikaba byarateye “kwiyongera gukabije k’ubukene“, byibasira cyane cyane abatuye mu mijyi, abana n’abagore. Polisi yataye muri yombi ku maherere abantu ibihumbi icumi bafungirwa ku bibuga by’umupira (stades) bashinjwa kurenga ku ngamba zo kwita ku buzima rusange kandi Leta nayo ibona neza ko kunenga ingamba zayo zidafatika ari ngombwa. 

Mu bandi banyambuga nkoranyambaga bafunzwe cyangwa bafashwe muri iki gihe cy’umwaka umwe ushize harimo Yvonne Idamange, watangaga ibitekerezo kuri interineti, na we wavuze ku bukene bukabije bugenda bwiyongera mu Rwanda kandi akanenga uko gahunda ya guma mu rugo yagenze. Agnès Uwimana Nkusi, umwanditsi mukuru w’urubuga rw’amakuru “Umarabyo n’umuyoboro wa YouTube” nawe yafunzwe amasaha menshi nyuma yo kwandika inkuru ku iburanisha ry’ibanze rya Yvonne Idamange; kimwe na Valentin Muhirwa na David Byiringro, abanyarubuga rwa Afrimax TV batanze ibiryo nyuma y’uko baganiriye  n’abaturage bagasanga bashonje, aho baje kurekurwa nyuma y’iminsi 12.

Abatanze ibitekerezo barimo Yvonne Idamange na Aimable Karasira wahoze ari umwarimu akaba na nyir’umuyoboro wa YouTube, bakoresheje amashusho yabo kugira ngo baganire kuri jenoside yo mu 1994 no ku byaha byakozwe na RPF, ishyaka riri ku butegetsi nyuma ya jenoside, nabo bashyizweho iterabwoba kandi bashinjwa guhakana no gupfobya jenoside.

Muri ino myaka yashize, abantu benshi bakurikiranwe ku buryo butemewe n’amategeko babwiye Human Rights Watch ko bakubiswe kandi bahatirwa kwemera ibyaha batakoze mu gihe cy’ibazwa ndetse n’igihe bari bafunzwe by’agateganyo. Bamwe muri bo bemeje kandi ko abakozi ba perezidansi babakoreye ihohoterwa maze bababwira kutazavuga iyicarubozo bakorewe.

Mu isuzuma rusange rihoraho rikorwa ku isi hose muri Mutarama 2021 ku bijyanye  n’uburenganzira bwa muntu mu Muryango w’abibumbye, u Rwanda rwahawe ibyifuzo byinshi n’ibindi bihugu byo guhindura amategeko kugira ngo arengere ubwisanzure mu gutanga ibitekerezo.

Lewis Mudge yashoje agira ati: “Mu Rwanda, kunenga guverinoma akenshi biganisha ku kwihorera, haba mu buryo bwo guta muri yombi, gutotezwa ndetse no kuburirwa irengero.” Yakomeje agira ati: “Iterabwoba rigaragazwa n’ishyaka riri ku butegetsi cyangwa abayobozi muri guverinoma no gutinya gukurikiranwa byatumye bashyiraho uburyo bwo gupfukirana ubwisanzure mu gutanga ibitekerezo, nk’aho aribo bicira imanza. “

Amabwiriza, iterabwoba no gukurikiranywa

Inzego z’ubutabera z’u Rwanda zikorera mu rwego rwa politiki aho ubutegetsi nyobozi buri hejuru y’ubucamanza kandi hariho kwikoma ku mugaragaro ibitekerezo bitandukanye n’ibya guverinoma cyangwa iby’ishyaka riri ku butegetsi, FPR. Kuba mu mategeko hagaragaramo gukumira no kurwanya ubwisanzure mu gutanga ibitekerezo, ibyo bibaha uburyo bwo gukurikirana abantu ku buryo butemewe n’amategeko. 

Muri ino myaka yashize, ingamba zashyizweho zo kugenzura imbuga nkoranyambaga no gutanga ibitekerezo ku rubuga rwa interineti zarushijeho gukaza umurego mu kubangamira ubwisanzure mu gutanga ibitekerezo. Ku itariki ya 8 Gicurasi 2019, Perezida Paul Kagame yiyamye akomeje abakoresha urubuga rwa interineti agire ati: “Abo wumva bavuga kuri interineti, baba muri Amerika, Afurika y’Epfo cyangwa Ubufaransa, batekereza ko ari kure. Bari kure, ariko bari hafi y’umuriro. Uko bazarushaho kugenda begera, umuriro uzabatwika.

Nyuma y’iminsi mike, Minisitiri w’Ikoranabuhanga n’Itumanaho (ICT) no guhanga ibishya, Paula Ingabire, yatangarije komisiyo ihoraho ishinzwe ingengo y’imari n’umurage mu Nteko Ishinga Amategeko ingamba zafashwe zo kugenzura ibisangirwa ku mbuga nkoranyambaga ngo kuko “agomba kuba ari amakuru ahuza abantu, yubaka igihugu, ngo nta gukwirakwiza amakuru atari yo cyangwa asebanya. “

Mu Kuboza, Ikigo Gishinzwe Itangazamakuru mu Rwanda (RMC), urwego rwigenga, rwaje kunengwa cyane ubwo rwatangazaga gahunda yo kwandikisha imiyoboro ya YouTube nk’itangazamakuru. Umunyamabanga Nshingwabikorwa wa RMC, Emmanuel Mugisha, yatangarije itangazamakuru ko iki gikorwa ari igisubizo ku birego byakiriwe kandi yagize ati: “Ntabwo ibi tubikora mu rwego rwo kubahiriza amategeko, ahubwo ni ukugirango tubamenye. Iyo umunyarubuga kuri YouTube ababaje itsinda runaka ry’abantu, tugomba kubimuryoza.

Igikorwa cyo kwiyandikisha cyasabaga abanyamakuru gutanga amakuru yerekeye umukoresha wabo, icyemezo kibemerera gukora itangazamakuru, inyandiko mpanabyaha, “umurongo wandikwamo” w’itangazamakuru n’amafaranga ibihumbi 50,000 by’amafaranga y’u Rwanda (cyangwa amadolari 50 y’Amerika). Nyuma y’uko icyo cyemezo kinengwa n’abanyambuga, RMC yahagaritse iryo yandikwa ryari riteganijwe ry’imiyoboro ya YouTube, nyuma kago muri uko kwezi.

Ibyifuzo byo kwiyandikisha cyangwa amabwiriza bishobora kugaragara neza ko abakora itangazamakuru bafite ubumenyi bukenewe. Icyakora, mu Rwanda, urebye ubwoba buhari ndetse n’uburyo ibitangazamakuru byigenzura, ibi biha imbaraga abayobozi kugira ngo bibasire abitwa ko basuzugura kandi bibangamira uburenganzira bwo gutanga ibitekerezo.

Imanza Zirega Abanyambuga n’Aabatanga ibitekerezo

Kuva mu mwaka wa 2018, abanyambuga, abanyamakuru n’abatanga ibitekerezo kuri YouTube barenga icumi barafunzwe, barafatwa cyangwa bakurikiranwa mu nkiko.

Muri Mata 2020, abanyambuga bane bakorera Afrimax TV, Ishema TV na Umubavu TV batawe muri yombi mu bihe bimwe, barihanangirizwa kandi bakurikiranyweho ibyaha bitandukanye birimo kurenga ingamba zo gukumira icyorezo cya koronavirusi. Abo bose batangazaga ibibazo by’ingutu byugarije abanyarwanda birimo cyane cyane ingaruka za guma mu rugo ku baturage. Mu mezi yabanjirije ayo, bari kandi baratangaje ibibazo byavutse igihe ubuyobozi bwimuraga ku gahato abari batuye ahitwa Bannyahe, agace gakennye haherereye mu murwa mukuru w’u Rwanda, Kigali.

Ku itariki ya 15 Mata, Dieudonné Niyonsenga, umuyobozi wa Ishema TV n’ushushoferi we Fidèle Komezusenge, batawe muri yombi igihe bari bagiye gutanga ibiganiro. Ubushinjacyaha bubashinja kuba bakora batemewe na RMC bukaba bwarasabiye Dieudonné Niyonsenga igifungo cy’imyaka umunani naho Komezusenge bumusabira igifungo cy’imyaka itanu.

Ku itariki ya 12 Werurwe 2021, Urukiko rwisumbuye rwa Gasabo i Kigali rwagize umwere Dieudonné Niyonsenga wakurikiranywagaho icyaha cyo gukora inyandiko mpimbano, “avuga ko afitanye isano n’umwuga w’ubunyamakuru“, kandi ko “abangamira imirimo rusange” na Fidèle Komezusenge, wakurikiranywagaho gufasha no gushyigikira inyandiko mpimbano no kwiba ibyangombwa by’ubutangazamakuru; abo bombi barekuwe ku itariki ya 13 Werurwe. Kuri uwo munsi, Dieudonné Niyonsenga yagaragaje mu kiganiro yanyjije k’Umubavu TV ko nyuma yo gutabwa muri yombi, yafungiwe ahantu henshi, aho yategetswe kwemera ko akorana n’ishyaka RNC, ishyaka ritavuga rumwe n’ubutegetsi rikorera mu buhungiro rikaba rishijwa ko rifite umutwe w’ingabo kandi uwo mutwe ukaba ushijwa gukoresha ibiyobyabwenge no kugaba ibitero ku bashinzwe umutekano w’u Rwanda. 

Ku itariki ya 12 Mata 2020, RIB yemeje, ibinyujije ku rubuga rwa Twitter, ifatwa rya Théoneste Nsengimana, nyiri Umubavu TV ngo ukekwaho uburiganya. RIB imushinja kwemerera abantu amafaranga angana na 20.000  y’u Rwanda (US $ 20) kugirango bavuge ko bahabwa ubufasha buturutse mu mahanga “agamije inyungu ze.” Urukiko rwa Kicukiro rwategetse ko Théoneste Nsengimana akurirwaho gufungwa by’agateganyo muri Gicurasi kubera ko nta bimenyetso bimushinja byagaragaye, ariko ibyo birego ntibiramukurwaho kugeza magingo aya.

Ku itariki ya 8 Mata 2020, RIB n’abapolisi bataye muri yombi Valentin Muhirwa na David Byiringiro, abanyambuga babiri bakorera Afrimax TV i Kangondo II, i Kigali. Icyo gihe umutangabuhamya yabwiye Human Rights Watch ko nyuma yo kubaza abantu ku bibahangayikishije birimo ibiryo bidahagije, abanyamakuru bagarutse babazaniye ibiribwa. Abaturage babiri bavuze ko nyuma y’iminota 30 RIB n’abapolisi bahageze, babashinja kurenga ku mabwiriza ya guverinoma no gutegura itangwa ry’ibiribwa ritemewe, bahise bafata ibyo biribwa kandi bata muri yombi abo banyambuga. Nyuma Valentin Muhirwa na David Byiringriro baje kurekurwa muri uko kwezi.

Ikigo Gishinzwe Itangazamakuru mu Rwanda (RMC) mu itangazo cyashyize ahagaragara ku itariki ya 13 Mata 2020 cyavuze ko abanyambuga bafunzwe batafashwe ku bw’akazi kabo kandi ko abanyambuga bo ku mbuga za interineti nk’abakoresha YouTube, atari abanyamakuru kandi ngo “ntibemerewe kubaza abaturage“. N’ubwo RMC yakoze iyo bwabaga ngo yirengagize abanyambuga, Komite y’Umuryango w’Abibumbye Ishinzwe Uburenganzira bwa muntu isobanura ibyerekeye amasezerano mpuzamahanga y’uburenganzira bwa muntu na politiki, yahaye za guverinoma ibyifuzo n’inshingano ku bijyanye n’ubwisanzure, yemeza ko ubutangazamakuru ari umwuga ukorwa na benshi barimo n’abanyambuga nkoranyambaga.

Mu isuzuma ngarukamwaka rikorerwa ku isi yose muri 2021, Minisitiri w’ubutabera Johnston Busingye, yashatse kuvuguruza ukuri ku Rwanda, aho yavuze ko: “Nta bushinjacyaha bwibasira abantu kubera gusa ko ari abanyapolitiki, abanyamakuru cyangwa abaharanira uburenganzira bwa muntu, kandi ko ibyo bita imanza za politiki bitabaho.”. kuri ibyo, Human Rights Watch yavuze ko amagambo ya Minisitiri w’Ubutabera atera kwibaza byinshi ku bijyanye n’ubushake bwa guverinoma y’u Rwanda bwo gukora ivugurura rikenewe mu mategeko rijyanye no kurengera ubwisanzure mu gutanga ibitekerezo.

Ibyaha byo guhakana jenoside

Mu myaka 27 ishize, abanyarwanda bakanguriwe kurwanya “amacakubiri n’ingengabitekerezo ya jenoside “. Mu by’ukuriibyo bwateje ingaruka zikomeye ku muntu wese ubaza ibisobanuro ku mateka y’u Rwanda. Kuvuga ku ihohoterwa ryakozwe n’abasirikare ba FPR bari ku butegetsi igihe ishyaka ryigaruriraga igihugu mu 1994, benshi babibona nko kurengera kandi ko ubikoze agomba guhanwa. 

Nyamara muri ino myaka yashize, bamwe mu batanga ibitekerezo batangiye gukoresha urubuga rwa YouTube kugira ngo bavuge kuri jenoside yo muri 1994 n’ibyaha by’intambara byakozwe na FPR nyuma ya jenoside. Urugero tutangwa ni urwa Aimable Karasira, wahoze ari umwarimu mu ikoranabuhanga n’itumanaho  muri Kaminuza y’u Rwanda, wavugiye ku  rubuga rwe rwa YouTube rwitwa “Ukuri Mbona” iby’urupfu rw’abavandimwe be bamwe bazize intagondwa z’Abahutu abandi bazize FPR muri 1994. 

Muri Nyakanga 2020, Édouard Bamporiki, Minisitiri w’Umuco n’urubyiruko, yibasiye Aimable Karasira ku mbuga nkoranyambaga avuga ko atagomba kongera kwemererwa kwigisha. Ku itariki ya 14 Kanama, Aimable Karasira yirukanwe muri kaminuza y’u Rwanda azira “gutanga ibitekerezo no kutavuga rumwe n’ubutegetsi, gukwirakwiza amakuru agamije gukangurira rubanda kwanga no gusuzugura ikigo yakoragamo ndetse n’inzego za Leta muri rusange“. Nyuma abinyujije muri videwo kuri YouTube, yaje kumenyekanisha ko yahamagawe ku biro bya RIB ku itariki ya 8 Ukuboza, aho bamusabye guhagarika kuvuga ibya jenoside.

Yvonne Idamange, umwe mu batanga ibitekerezo  kuri interineti wanenze uburyo guverinoma y’u Rwanda yateguye gukumira no kwibuka itsembabwoko, yatawe muri yombi ku itariki ya 15 Gashyantare 2021 nyuma yo gushyira ahagaragara amashusho avuga ko Perezida Paul Kagame yapfuye, yahamagariye ingabo gukorera rubanda cyangwa bakagerwaho n’uburakari bw’Imana kandi asaba Abanyarwanda gufata Bibiliya zabo bakerekeza ku biro bya perezida. Amakuru yizewe aturuka ku bantu babiri avuga ko abapolisi binjiye ku gahato mu rugo rwa Yvonne Idamange nta cyemezo cyo kumuta muri yombi cyangwa kumushakisha maze bamujyana mu buroko.

Polisi y’igihugu cy’u Rwanda imushinja “kwerekana imyitwarire ivanga politiki, ubugizi bwa nabi n’ubusazi.” Yvonne Idamange yagizwe ingwate kugeza ubu akaba ari kubabarira mu buroko. Ibindi byaha aregwa harimo “guhamagarira rubanda guteza imvururu rusange” no “gutangaza ibihuha”. Ku itariki ya 9 Werurwe, umunyamakuru akaba n’umwanditsi mukuru w’umuyoboro wa YouTube Umurabyo, Agnès Uwimana Nkusi, yafunzwe amasaha menshi kandi bigaragara ko ibiri muri terefone ye byajagajazwe nyuma yo gufata amajwi ibanzirizarubanza ry’urubanza rwa Yvonne Idamange.

Muri videwo ye ya mbere, Yvonne Idamange yanenze gukoresha inzibutso za jenoside mu bukerarugendo, aho agira ati “imibiri y’abo dukunda iragurishwa“, kandi yibaza ku cyo bita cyaha rusange hamwe no kwibuka. Ikindi cyaha aregwa ni icyo “kurandura no kwangiza ibimenyetso bya jenoside“.

Ku itariki ya 5 Gashyantare, Komisiyo y’Igihugu Ishinzwe kurwanya Jenoside (CNLG) yongeye kwihanangiriza, mu itangazo ryamagana imbuga nkoranyambaga zahanwe n’amategeko agenga ingengabitekerezo ya Jenoside yo mu 2018, nyuma anatangaza izina rya Yvonne Idamange kuri radiyo y’igihugu nk’umwe mu bakoze ibyo byaha. Nyamra ubundi, komisiyo igomba kuba urwego rwigenga rurengera impamvu nyakuri ya jenoside. Ku itariki ya 14 Gashyantare, umunyamabanga nshingwabikorwa wa komisiyo, Jean Damascène Bizimana, mu kiganiro yagiranye n’Ijwi ry’Amerika, yavuze ko imiyoboro myinshi ya YouTube “yarenze umurongo utukura” kuko ngo ihakana kandi gutesha agaciro jenoside.

Yvonne Idamange yanavuze muri videwo ye iheruka ko Edouard Bamporiki yagiye iwe inshuro ebyiri, amutera ubwoba, agerageza kumuha ruswa ngo areke kohereza amashusho ye kuri You Tube amubwira ko naramuka atabihagaritse azapfa. Édouard Bamporiki yaje kwemeza ko yasuye kwa Yvonne Idamange ariko ahakana ibyo aregwa. Abakozi bo mu rugo kwa Yvonne Idamange na bagenzi be babiri bafunzwe igihe yafatwaga, baje kurekurwa nyuma y’icyumweru.

Mu Rwanda, abayobozi ba leta bakunze gutanga gasopo kandi bagatera ubwoba abavuga ku bibazo by’ingutu byugarije igihugu n’abagituye.

Human Rights Watch yavuze ko iterabwoba, amategeko n’ibyha bidasobanutse neza ndetse no guhanishwa igifungo cyangwa ihazabu ndengakamere byatumye habaho iterabwoba ry’ubushinjacyaha ku muntu wese watinyuka kuvuga ku bibazo ubuyobozi butifuza ko bivugwa.

Human Rights Watch ivuga ko ubundi byemewe ko Leta y’u Rwanda yakumira imvugo y’urwango yateje akaga katumye abantu barenga kimwe cya kabiri cya miliyoni bapfa muri 1994, ngo ariko amategeko n’imikorere biriho birenze iyo ntego kuko bihagarika gutanga ibitekerezo, kujya impaka no kunenga guverinoma.

Amategeko y’igihugu ahonyora ubwisanzure bwo gutanga ibitekerezo

Amategeko y’u Rwanda arimo imbogamizi zikomeye kandi zidasobanutse zirebana n’ubwisanzure mu gutanga ibitekerezo no kurengera ubwisanzure bw’itangazamakuru nk’uko amategeko mpuzamahanga abiteganya. Ingingo ya 38 y’itegeko nshinga ryo muri 2015 irengera ubwisanzure mu gutanga ibitekerezo ariko ni ibya nyirarubeshwa. Hari imbogamizi nyinshi zihabanye n’amategeko agenda akarere ndetse n’amahanga u Rwanda rwashyizeho umukono. 

Igitabo cy’amategeko ahana mu Rwanda cyo muri 2018 gikubiyemo ingingo nyinshi zemerera gukurikiranwa, nyamara binyuranije n’amategeko. N’ubwo Urukiko rw’Ikirenga rwemeje mu mwaka wa 2019 guhindura ingingo zishinja “gusebya mu ruhame imihango y’idini” no “gusuzuguza abayobozi”, ingingo nyinshi ziracyafite ibihano bikabije kandi bidasobanutse ku bifatwa nk’ibisebanya cyangwa ibitari ukuri. Urugero, ingingo ya 236 ihana “gutukana cyangwa gusebya Perezida wa Repubulika“, bihanishwa igifungo kuva ku myaka irindwi n’ihazabu y’amafaranga agera kuri miliyoni 7 y’amafaranga y’u Rwanda (angana n’Amadolari 7,050 y’Amerika).

Muri ino myaka yashize, Human Rights Watch yatangaje kandi ingero nyinshi z’ubushinjacyaha bukurikirana abantu bavuze ku ihohoterwa ry’uburenganzira bwa muntu kandi bahamwe n’icyaha cyo “gukwirakwiza amakuru y’ibinyoma bagamije kwangisha amahanga igihugu cy’u Rwanda“. Itegeko ryo gukumira ibyaha by’ikoranabuhanga kandi ribuza “gutangaza ibihuha,” bihanishwa igifungo cy’imyaka itanu n’ihazabu y’amafaranga y’u Rwanda agera kuri miliyoni eshatu (angana n’amadolari 3,000 y’Amerika). Amakuru y’ibinyoma yonyine ntabwo ari ishingiro ryemewe ryo guhana no kuburizamo ubwisanzure bwo gutanga ibitekerezzo mu mategeko mpuzamahanga.

Itegeko rigenga itangazamakuru mu Rwanda ryo muri 2013 ritanga ibisobanuro bigufi by’abanyamakuru n’ibikorwa bakora, icyakora itangazo rya Komisiyo Nyafurika y’uburenganzira bwa muntu n’abaturage (ACHPR) iharanira uburenganzira n’amahame y’ubwisanzure mu gutanga ibitekerezo, rirengera cyane abanyamakuru n’itangazamakuru rya interineti. Amategeko y’itangazamakuru kandi yashyizeho urwego rwigenga, Komisiyo y’itangazamakuru mu Rwanda (RMC). Iyo Komisiyo ishinzwe kugenzura “imyitwarire y’abanyamakuru“. Mu rubanza rwa Dieudonné Niyonsenga na Fidèle Komezusenge, ubushinjacyaha bwabashinjije kuba barakoze batiyandikishije muri RMC kandi batanga ibisobanuro bigufi by’abanyamakuru kugira ngo basobanure ibirego byabo byo “kwiba indangabanyamakuru” no “guhimba impapuro“.

Mu mategeko agenga itangazamakuru, umugenzuzi w’amategeko agenga serivisi z’igihugu mu RURA, ashinzwe kugenzura “amajwi n’amashusho” kuri interineti. Mu mategeko agenga Ikoranabuhanga n’itumanaho (ICT) mu Rwanda, birabujijwe ko itumanaho rifatwa nk “igitero gikomeye“, “ibinyoma” cyangwa “bitera uburakari, kutoroherwa, cyangwa guhangayika bitari ngombwa” kandi Leta ishobora gutegeka RURA kwemeza ko imiyoboro cyangwa serivisi bihagarikwa ngo “mu rwego rwo kurinda abaturage no kurwanya icyabangamira umutekano rusange, ubuzima rusange cyangwa ku nyungu z’umutekano w’igihugu “.

Ingingo ya 126 y’itegeko rigenga Ikoranabuhnaga n’Itimanaho (ICT) kandi yemerera guverinoma guhagarika itumanaho ryigenga iyo rifashwe nk”irinyuranyije n’amategeko ayo ari yo yose ariho mu gihugu, yaba agenga ubuzima rusange cyangwa imyitwarire myiza.” Komite ishinzwe Uburenganzira bwa Muntu isanga gushyiraho icyemezo cyo guhagarika ibikorerwa ku mbuga na sisitemu zimwe na zimwe bidahuye n’amasezerano mpuzamahanga y’uburenganzira bwa muntu na politiki.

Hanyuma, amategeko arebana n’itsembabwoko mu Rwanda, ashobora kuba yari agamije gukumira no guhana imvugo ibiba inzangano y’ubwoko yateje jenoside yo mu 1994, ariko mu by’ukuri abuza umudendezo wo gutanga ibitekerezo kandi ashyiraho imipaka ikarishye agena uburyo abantu bashobora kuvuga kuri jenoside n’ibindi bintu byabayeho muri 1994. Amategeko y’u Rwanda asobanura ingengabitekerezo ya jenoside nk’igikorwa rusange kigaragaza ingengabitekerezo iharanira cyangwa igashyigikira irimbuka, muri rusange cyangwa igice cy’itsinda ry’igihugu, ubwoko cyangwa idini.

Ivugurura ryanyuma ry’itegeko ryatowe muri 2018 ryakuyeho inyandiko isaba ibimenyetso by’igikorwa nkana no kwemeza ko mu Rwanda habaye jenoside ebyiri”. Havugwa ko ibyo ari “ugutanga imibare mibi ku bahohotewe” no “kugoreka ukuri kuri jenoside hagamijwe kubeshya rubanda”. Bityo ubikoze ahanishwa igihano ntarengwa cy’igifungo cy’imyaka irindwi n’ihazabu y’amafaranga nibura 500.000 y’u Rwanda (angana n’amadolari 500 y’Amerika). Nyamara ibyo byashyiriweho gukingira ikibaba FPR ku byaha yakoreye inyokomuntu. 

Imbaraga z’ubutegetsi bw’u Rwanda mu kurwanya ihohoterwa rya jenoside ntizigomba kuba zikubiyemo ibihano mpanabyaha kubera ibiganiro gusa byakozwe kandi ntibigomba kwibanda cyangwa gushaka guhagarika ibiganiro no kujya impaka ku byabaye mu mateka y’u Rwanda. Human Rights Watch yavuze ko amategeko mpanabyaha cyangwa amategeko ayo ari yo yose afite ibyaha bidasobanutse neza adakwiye gukoreshwa kugira ngo atabuze abantu guhangana n’ibitagenda neza mu buzima bw’igihugu.

Ibyifuzo

Abafatanyabikorwa mpuzamahanga b’u Rwanda, cyane cyane abazajya i Kigali muri Kamena mu nama y’abakuru b’ibihugu bigize Umuryango wa Commonwealth, bagomba gukoresha uwo mwanya bagahatira u Rwanda mbere y’uko iyo nama iba kugira ngo rutere intambwe igaragara iganisha ku ivugurura ry’amategeko no gukuraho gukurikirana bitemewe n’amategeko ndetse no gutoteza abanyambuga n’abatanga ibitekerezo byabo.

U Rwanda rugomba gushyira mu bikorwa byihutirwa ibyifuzo rwashyikirijwe mu isuzuma rya Human Rights Watch ryo muri 2021 kugira ngo ruhindure amategeko ahana n’amategeko agenga itangazamakuru, rwemeze ubwigenge bwa komisiyo ishinzwe itangazamakuru mu Rwanda, kandi rufate ingamba zo gukuraho urujijo mu mategeko ashinzwe itangazamakuru. U Rwanda rugomba gusuzuma byimazeyo amategeko yarwo, harimo ajyanye n’ingengabitekerezo ya jenoside ndetse n’amategeko ya ICT, kugira ngo ruhuze amategeko yarwo n’amasezerano mpuzamahanga n’ay’akarere rwashyizeho umukono.

Ubutegetsi bw’u Rwanda bugomba kwemera ko hagunda ya BBC mu Kinyarwanda, yahagaritswe mu 2014, yongera gukora. Amabwiriza ya RURA yo guhagarika imiyoboro ya interineti n’imbuga nkoranyambaga anyuranije n’amategeko mpuzamahanga agomba gukurwaho kugirango ngo abaturage bagezweho amakuru kandi bashobore gutanga ibitekerezo byabo kuri interineti. U Rwanda kandi rugomba gutumira ku mugaragaro abashinzwe gutangaza iby’ubwisanzure mu gutanga ibitekerezo bo muri komisiyo nyafurika ishinzwe uburenganzira bw’ikiremwamuntu n’umuryango w’abibumbye kugira ngo isuzume uko ibintu bihagaze kandi itange ibyifuzo ku buryo bwo gushyiraho umurongo mwiza wo kubahiriza ubwisanzure mu gutanga ibitekerezo mu mategeko y’u Rwanda. 

Kugira ngo hakurikizwe icyo Umuryango wa Commonwealth wiyemeje cyo guteza imbere ubwisanzure bw’itangazamakuru n’imiryango, ubutegetsi bw’u Rwanda bugomba guha uburenganzira imiryango yigenga itegamiye kuri Leta ndetse n’abanyamakuru bose gukora mu bwisanzure, gukora iperereza no gutangaza amakuru ajyanye n’ibibazo by’ingutu byugarije rubanda, harimo n’ibirego by’ihohoterwa ry’uburenganzira bwa muntu.

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