Yanditswe na Arnold Gakuba

N’ubwo Leta ya Paul Kagame ihakana ko idakoresha porogaramu “Pegasus” mu butasi, bigaragara ko ikoranabuhanga ryongeye umurego mu butasi bwa Paul Kagame. Nk’uko bitangazwa na  Michela Wrong mu Kinyamakuru The Guardian, Abanyarwanda bamaze imyaka n’imyaniko bagenzurwa hakoreshejwe ikoranabuhanga rinyuze mu buryo bwa Pegasus. Gushakisha amakuru hakoreshejwe uburyo ubwo aribwo bwose ndetse no ku kiguzi icyo aricyo cyose ni ibintu bya Paul Kagame. Iyi nkuru iratugaragariza uburyo Paul Kagame yimariye mu butasi.

Bamwe mu babaye abayobozi muri Leta ya Paul Kagame bemeza ko Paul Kagame atayobora ahubwo ashinzwe gukusanya ibihuha, amazimwe n’ibindi yaba yifashisha mu guhungeta abanyarwanda aho bari hose no kwivuna abo yaba atifuza nk’uko byatangajwe na David Himbara wigeze kuba umujyanama we. Mu ibaruwa ifunguye yandikiye Paul Kagame muri Mata 2019, David Himbara yagaragaje ko uwitwa Apollo Karirisi Gafaranga yagize uruhare mu rupfu rwa Patrick Karegeya washinze Ishyaka RNC ritavuga rumwe na Leta ya Kigali akaba yarakoze no mu butasi muri Leta ya Paul Kagame. 

Amakuru yizewe avuga ko uwo mucuruzi w’umuherwe Apollo Kiririsi Gafaranga yavuye i Kigali akerekeza muri Afrika y’Epfo agiye gusura Patrick Karegeya wari uzi ko ari inshuti ye nyamara Apollo yibereye kuri misiyo ya Paul Kagame. Icyo gihe Apollo Gafaranga yari afite telefoni ya BlackBerry yari agiye gukoresha mu kuneka Patrick Karegeya. Ntibyatinze rero mu gihe gito Patrick Karegeya yahise yivuganwa muri 2013, Apollo Karirisi Gafaranga abigizemo uruhare runini. Iki cyemeza neza ukuntu Paul Kagame yatangiye gukoresha ikoranabuhanga mu butasi bwe kuva kera. Ubutasi hakoreshejwe ikoranabuhanga nibwo bwamufashije mu kugeza Paul Rusesabagina i Kigali mu Rwanda amukuye Dubai, ubu akaba ariho afungiye akorerwa ihohoterwa y’iyicarubozo. Ni naryo kandi rifasha Paul Kagame gukurikirana abanyamakuru, impirimbanyi z’uburenganzira bwa muntu n’abandi batavuga rumwe nawe bahunze u Rwanda.

Imiryango itandukanye muri Afurika ikurikiranirwa hafi, kandi abanenga guverinoma bamenyeshejwe inshuro nyinshi ko guverinoma zimwe zirenga imbibi z’ibihugu byazo. Muri izo guverinoma harimo n’iya Paul Kagame wiyemeje gukurikirana abatavuga rumwe n’ubutegetsi kugera no muri Ositaraliya, Canada, Amerika, Ubwongereza n’umugabane wose w’Uburayi.  

Niba u Rwanda ari umukiriya w’itsinda rya NSO, nk’uko umushinga wa Pegasus ubigaragaza, urerekana ishusho iteye ubwoba y’izo guverinoma ziyemeje guhiga abo zita “abanzi b’igihugu” hakoreshejwe ikoranabuhanga. Muri Gashyantare, itsinda ry’ubuvugizi muri Amerika ryitwa “Freedom House” ryatangaje ko u Rwanda ari kimwe mu bihugu byo ku isi “bikandamiza abaturage”, ku rwego rumwe na Arabiya Sawudite, Ubushinwa, Uburusiya na Turukiya. Riragira riti “Icyemezo cyo kugenzura abanyarwanda mu mahanga n’umutungo bitwara biratangaje iyo urebye ko u Rwanda ari igihugu gituwe na miliyoni 13 (n’ubwo iyo mibare ari imihimbano kuko hari benshi bahunze igihugu) aho hafi kimwe cya gatatu cy’abaturage bari munsi y’umurongo w’ubukene.”

Gukusanya amakuru byamye ari umwihariko wa Paul Kagame; ikoranabuhanga rigezweho ryaguye gusa intera mu mikorere ye. Paul Kagame yakuriye mu burengerazuba bwa Uganda. Abifashijwemo na Yoweri Museveni perezida wa Uganda, yoherejwe gutozwa i Dar es Salaam iby’ubutasi bwa gisirikare. Nyuma yaje kwinjira mu mutwe w’inyeshyamba za Museveni (NRM) muri Luwero. Aho inshingano yahawe yari iyo gukusanya amakuru ku barwanyi bakekwaho kutubahiriza inshingano zabo harimo gusinzira ku kazi no kwerekana ubugwari ku irondo. Uruhare rwe rwari urwo guhana abasirikare bafatwaga mu makosa aho benshi bicwaga  maze aza guhabwa izina rya “Pilato”. 

Igihe umurwa mukuru wa Uganda, Kampala, wigarurirwaga na NRM mu 1986, Kagame yahawe akazi mu nzego z’ubutasi bwa gisirikare kandi agira uruhare runini mu ishingwa ry’umutwe wa (FPR), ingabo zakoreraga mu buryo bw’ibanga mu ngabo za Uganda. Nyuma y’uko umuyobozi wa FPR yishwe amaze gutangiza urugamba rwo muri 1990 mu Rwanda, Kagame yagize ubwoba afata iya mbere, yishingikiriza gutanga amakuru kugirango agenzure inshuro ebyiri abayobozi bafite ubudahemuka yashidikanyagaho.

Igihe FPR yafataga Kigali nyuma ya jenoside yo muri 1994 yahitanye inzirakarengane zitagira ingano,  yigaruriye ubutegetsi ubu ikaba ikomeje gutsikamira Abanyarwanda. Nyakwigendera perezida Juvénal Habyarimana yari yarashyizeho gahunda yo kugenzura imbere mu gihugu aho abayobozi bo mu nzego z’ibanze batangaga raporo ku matsinda y’amazu 10 (nyumba kumi), mu gihe inzego z’ubutasi zo zagenzuraga cyane abatavuga rumwe n’ubutegetsi.  

Aho Paul Kagame agereye ku butegetsi yakomeje urwego rwa nyumba kumi, iyobowe n’abakozi ba FPR bakangurira politiki, nkigikoresho gikomeye cyo kugenzura imibereho. Icyo ubu Paul Kagame yakoze ni uko yashyizeho kandi urwego ruri hasi ya “nyumba kumi” rwitwa “isibo” muri gahunda yo kunoza ubutasi bwe. Muri uru rwego buri wese aneka undi; umugabo aneka umugore, umugore akaneka umugabo, umwana akaneka umubyeyi bityo bityo maze Mutwarasibo akarara atanze amakuru mu nzego zibishinzwe nazo zirara zibigejeje kuri Paul Kagame. David Himbara wahoze ari umujyanama mu by’ubukungu wa Paul Kagame, yagize ati “Igihugu cyose ni imashini y’ubutasi.” Yongeraho ati “Ingabo, abapolisi, baza ku biro bye kugira ngo bamubwire ibintu. Ntategeka, akusanya ibihuha.” 

Mu mahanga, za ambasade n’ibindi biro bihagarariye u Rwanda bikoreshwa mu gukurikirana, gutera ubwoba ndetse rimwe na rimwe no kwica abanyamakuru, abaharanira uburenganzira bwa muntu ndetse n’abayoboke b’amashyaka atavuga rumwe n’ubutegetsi bwa Kigali: ubu abenshi batavuga rumwe na Paul Kagame si abahutu gusa ahubwo ni n’abatutsi barwananye cyangwa bayoboranye nawe. 

Mu bihe byahise, igipolisi cyaburiye ku mugaragaro abarwanashyaka ba RNC baba i Londres ko hari iterabwoba rikabije ku buzima rivuye i Kigali; mu Bubiligi, uwahoze ari Minisitiri w’intebe w’u Rwanda yahawe abamurinda; mu gihe abapolisi ba Ositaraliya bo bagiriye inama abatavuga rumwe n’ubutegetsi bwa Kigali bari mu buhungiro muri icyo gihugu kwirinda abakozi bo mu Rwanda bakorera i Brisbane. 

Ku mugaragaro, u Rwanda ruhakana ko rwakoresheje porogaramu ya Pegasus ya NSO, ariko uwahoze ari umuyobozi w’ubutasi akaba ari na we washinze Ishyaka RNC, Kayumba Nyamwasa – warokotse inshuro nyinshi ibico bya Paul Kagame akaba yari agiye gusiga ubuzima bwe muri Afurika y’Epfo – avuga ko FPR ifitanye umubano ukomeye wa gisirikare mu by’ubutasi na Isiraheli kuva jenoside yo muri 1994 yarangira,  kandi ko hari imikoranire ikomeye hagati y’ingabo za Isiraheli na sosiyete zigurisha ibikoresho by’ubutasi ku buryo bwa rwihishwa. 

Kayumba yari asanzwe yaramenyeshejwe na WhatsApp muri 2019 ko ari umwe muri 1,400 bayikoresha bibasiwe na Pegasus, aribuka ko yamenye neza ko telefoni ye ikurikiranwa. Yabwiye Michela Wong ati: “Igihe navaga mu Rwanda natekereje ko bishoboka ko nzakurikiranwa na gahunda y’itumanaho ya Leta y’u Rwanda ndetse n’ibigo byigenga by’itumanaho muri Afurika y’Epfo, ariko muri 2018 bambwiye ibisobanuro birambuye ku kiganiro umuntu uri hafi yanjye yagiranye n’incuti yanjye, nongeye kugenzura ibyo bisobanuro nsanga byari ukuri, kandi numva ko hashyizweho uburyo bunoze bwo kungenzura.

Kubera ko bazi neza ko bashobora gukurikiranwa, Abanyarwanda baba mu mahanga bagerageza kuguma kwirinda bahindura telefone na nimero, bagakoresha amazina atazwi, kandi bagahindagura imbuga. WhatsApp yagiye ahanini irekwa maze benshi bimukira kuri  Signal na Telegram, ariko ababikoresha benshi nabo nta kizere bafite, kuko nyuma y’igihe runaka ubutumwa buhita bubura. Ni intambara itoroshye, kuko abarwanashyaka bavuga ko nimero nshya na telefone bishobora kumenyekana bidatinze. 

Abanyarwanda benshi ubu ntibizera cyane uburyo bwose bwitumanaho rya elegitoronike. Muri ubwo buryo, kumenya yuko Pegasus iriho byagize ingaruka zikomeye ku bwisanzure bw’ibitekerezo mu Rwanda igihugu gito cyane ariko gihangayikishije Afrika yo hagati ku buryo bw’umwigariko na Afrika ndetse n’isi yose muri rusange. Nyuma y’ibi bikorwa byose n’aya makuru yose yerekana ko Paul Kagame yimariye muri “Pegasus”, abambari be bo bakomeje kujijisha abanyarwanda n’amahanga bahakana ko nta bushobozi bafite bwo gukoresha iryo koranabuhanga. 

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