Amayobera y’ishusho y’ubutegetsi bwa Paul Kagame (kuva 1990 kugera ubu)

Yanditswe na Arnold Gakuba

Intangiriro

Ishusho ya Paul Kagame, perezida w’u Rwanda kuva muri 1994 (aho yayoboraga igihugu rwihishwa) no kuva muri 2000 (aho yatangiye kuyobora igihugu ku mugaragaro) ntivugwaho rumwe. Ku ruhande rumwe, Paul Kagame abonwa kandi akundwa nk’uwabohoye igihugu kandi akaba umusemburo w’iterambere nyamara kandi ku rundi ruhande abonwa nk’umunyagitugu kandi uhohotera uburenganzira bwa muntu. Ku itariki ya 30  Mata 2021, Howard W. French yasohoye, mu kinyamakuru kitwa The New York Times, inkuru yise “The Dark Underside of Rwanda’s Model Public Image” ugenekereje mu Kinyarwanda ni “Uruhande rwijimye rw’ishusho rusange y’icyitegererezo y’u Rwanda”. Iyi nkuru kandi yubakiye ku gitabo cya Michela Wrong “Do not Disturb: The Story of a Political murder and an African Regime Gone Bad” ugenekereje mu Kinyarwanda ni “Ntugahungabanye: Inkuru y’ubwicanyi bwa politiki n’ubutegetsi bwa Afurika bwabaye nabi.” Izi nyandiko zombi zaduteye kwegeranya amakuru yerkana ishusho nyayo ya Paul Kagame wigize umwami w’akarere k’ibiyaga bigari. N’ubwo yabaye inkundwakazi y’umuryango mpuzamahanga w’abaterankunga, binyuze mu binyoma no kugira bamwe igikoresho cye, ubwami bwa Paul Kagame bwaranzwe n’ibitero bya gisirikare (kuva muri 1990 kugeza ubu), ubwicanyi buteguwe neza kandi bugahitana imabaga ( kuva muri 1990 kugeza ubu), no gusahura umutungo wa Kongo (kuva muri 1997 kugeza ubu). 

Paul Kagame n’umuryango mpuzamahanga w’abaterankunga

Paul Kagame yabaye unkundwakazi y’umuryango mpuzamahanga utera inkunga kuva kera. Kuva Paul Kagame yagera ku butegetsi muri 1994, yari mu kwezi kwa buki hamwe n’ibihugu by’uburengerazuba. Yabaye muri ba perezida bakunzwe cyane nibyo bihugu bo muri Afurika. Ibi byatewe nuko Paul Kagame yize mu ishuri rikuru ry’ingabo z’Amerika i Fort Leavenworth, muri Kansas aho yakuye inshuti za gisirikare n’iza politiki ariko kandi na jenoside yo mu Rwanda yarayikoresheje cyane maze afatwa nk’umwe mu bayobozi b’Afrika baharaniye uburenganzira bwa muntu, nyamara byahe birakajya.  

Izi ngingo zavuzwe haruguru zatumye Paul Kagame, uzwi cyane mu bihugu by’iburengerazuba kugeza muri 2019, akomeza kuba inkundwakazi y’umuryango mpuzamahanga w’abaterankunga. U Rwanda rwahawe hafi “miliyari 1.22 z’amadolari y’Amerika” mu nkunga y’iterambere mu 2016-2017 (Ann Garrison, Ukwakira 5, 2019) naho Amerika yo yateye u Rwanda inkunga muri uwo mwaka ingana na miliyoni 177.6 z’amadolari y’Amerika. N’ubwo rwahawe inkunga nyinshi n’amahanga, abaturage bo mu Rwanda bo bakomeje kuba mu bambere bakennye ku isi. U Rwanda rwaje ku mwanya wa 21 ku rutonde rw’ibihugu bikennye cyane ku isi muri 2020 n’amadolari 2,452 y’umusaruro rusange w’imbere mu gihugu (GDP) kuri buri muturage (Poorest Countries in the World 2020 | Global Finance Magazine (gfmag.com). Bityo rero, hakwiye gufatwa ingamba zo kuvugurura imitangire y’imfashanyo zihabwa u Rwanda. Ushaka kumenya amakuru arambuye kuri iyi ngingo yasoma inkuru yasohotse muri The Rwandan igira iti “Amafaranga y’u Rwanda ajya he? Ubutunzi bwa Paul Kagame buva he?”

Ivogera rya gisirikare rikorwa na Paul Kagame

Mu mwaka wa 1991, Paul Kagame yabaye umuyobozi w’umutwe wa R.P.F. wateye u Rwanda mu Kwakira muri 1990 nyuma y’urupfu rwa Fred Rwigema. Ikoresheje amayeri n’uburyarya mu biganiro by’amahoro byabereye  muri Arusha-Tanzaniya hagati ya RPF na guverinoma yari iyobowe n’Abahutu kugeza muri 1994, Paul Kagame yabonye ingufu nyuma yo guhanura indege yari itwaye abaperezida b’u Rwanda n’Uburundi. Indege yaba yarashwe n’abasirikare ba FPR nk’uko byanditswe n’abanditsi benshi n’ubwo bwose bamwe mu bambari ba Paul Kagame bakibihakana.  Icyo gikorwa cyo guhanura indege ya Prezida Habyarimana Juvenal cyabaye imbarutso y’ubwicanyi bwahise buyogoza igihugu – ku ruhande rw’intagorwa z’abahutu bibasira abatutsi naho ingabo za Paul Kagame n’abari bazishyigikiye nabo bibasira abahutu. Hari amakuru dufitiye gihamya avuga ko jenoside yo mu Rwanda Paul Kagame yayishakaga kuko yabonaga ariyo nzira yonyine izamugeza ku butegetsi. Umwe mu basirikare bari aba RPF twahuriye muri Kaminuza nkuru y’u Rwanda i Butare yadutangarije amagambo akurikira “Abayobozi ba RPF bifuzaga ko mu Rwanda haba ubwicanyi rusange ngo babone uko babwuririraho bakabona ubutegetsi.”

Howard W. French yashimangiye ko muri 1996, ubwo yari umunyamakuru wa Times muri Afurika, ntiyashoboye kumva uburyo umutwe w’inyeshyamba, utari warigeze kuvugwa na rimwe, wayogoje igihugu cya Zaire ugashobora kuvanaho inkurwakazi y’Amerika ariwe Mobutu Sese Seko. Nyamara nyuma yaje kumenya ko yari Paul Kagame n’abasirikare be bagabye igitero bihishe, icyo gitero kikaba cyarahitanye abantu b’inzirakarengane babarirwa muri za miliyoni. Kuva icyo gihe, Paul Kagame yatangiye kandi akomeza gusahura ubukungu bwa Zaire abifashijwemo n’igisirikare cye. Nyamara kubera kubeshya no gutekinika, yakomeje gukundwa y’umuryango mpuzamahanga w’abaterankunga.

Mu gitabo cya Boniface Musavuli yise “Beni Massacres: Fake Islamists and Rwandan Unending Occupation” ugenekereje mu Kinyarwanda ni “Ubwicanyi bwa Beni: Abayisilamu b’ibinyoma no kwigarurira kw’Abanyarwanda kudashira”, uwo umwanditsi yemeza ko DRC ari igihugu cyigaruriwe kandi cyigirwa imbata n’u Rwanda. Yashimangiye ko “Ihuriro ry’ingabo za demokarasi zigamije kubohoza Kongo” n“Iziharanira Demokarasi ya Kongo” zose zari ingabo z’u Rwanda na Uganda ziyoberanaije zigamije kwigarurira Kongo. Nyuma kandi zongeye gukoresha andi mazina y’uburiganya arimo “Kongere y’igihugu ishinzwe kurengera abaturage (CNDP)” hamwe n’umutwe uzwi cyane wo ku ya 23 Werurwe (M23). Iyo yose akaba ari imitwe ishyirwaho na Paul Kagame agamije guhungabanya umutekano wa Congo ndetse no gusahura ubutunzi bwayo.

Ukuvogera ibindi bihugu kandi gukorwa na Paul Kagame kugaragarira mu butasi bw’u Rwanda. Abatasi ba Paul Kagame banyanyagiye ku isi hose cyane cyane mu Karere k’Ibiyaga Bigari kugira ngo bamufashe guhungabanya umutekano mu karere hakoreshejwe imbaraga za gisirikare ndetse n’iza politiki. Abatasi ba Paul Kagame rero binjiye rwihishwa muri Uganda (cyane cyane mu murwa mukuru wayo-Kampala), Kenya, Tanzaniya n’Uburundi. Ntabwo tuvuga kuri Repubulika Iharanira Demokarasi ya Kongo kuko yo yabaye indiri y’igisirikare cya Paul Kagame kuva muri 1996 kugera ubu kandi bakora nkaho ari mu gihugu cyabo bagamije ikintu kimwe gusa “Gukorera, kubungabunga no kurengera inyungu za Paul Kagame.”  

Ubwicanyi buteguye, buhoraho kandi bwibasira imbaga bwa Paul Kagame

Ubwicanyi buteguye, buhoraho kandi bugambiriye kumaraho imbaga bwa Paul Kagame bwatangiye ubwo yasimburaga Jenerali Fred Rwigema ku buyobozi bwa RPA. Dufite ubuhamya bwinshi bwabacitse ku icumu rya Paul Kagame akiri mu nyeshyamba ngo zari zigamije kubohora u Rwanda. Mu gitabo cye Wrong yavuze cyane ku iyicwa rya Patrick Karegeya azize Paul Kagame kandi yarahoze ari umutasi w’u Rwanda. Patrtick Karegeya yahunze u Rwanda kubera kutishimira imikorere ya Paul Kagame yo kwikubira ubutegetsi no kwihorera. 

Hari byinshi bishobora kuvugwa ku byanditswe ku Rwanda ku bijyanye no kutubahiriza uburenganzira bwa muntu kwa Paul Kagame birimo ubwicanyi bwibasiye abamunenga bari mu buhungiro. Nyuma y’ubwo bwicanyi buzwi cyane, bw’uwahoze ari umuyobozi w’ubutasi bw’u Rwanda, Patrick Karegeya, muri 2013, Kagame ubwe igihe yafunguraga igitondo cy’amasengesho mu gihugu cye yavuze yishimye ati: “Umuntu wese urwanya igihugu cyacu ntazarokoka uburakari bwacu. Uwo muntu azabigiriramo akaga.” Aya magambo yagaragarije buri wese ko urupfu rwa Patrick Karegeya rwabereye muri Afrika y’Epfo ari Paul Kagame warugizemo uruhare. Ubwicanyi bwa Paul Kagame rero burenga umupaka w’u Rwanda. 

Wrong yavuze kandi ku bugizi bwa nabi bwakorewe Abahutu bwabaye n’ubwo jenoside yari yarangiye, nyuma y’uko u Rwanda rwigarurirwa na R.P.F ya Paul Kagame aho avuga ko hari ibihumbi icumi by’abahutu b’abasivili byishwe byari byarahungiye muri Kongo. Aributsa kandi ko nyuma y’igihe, Umuryango w’Abibumbye wafashe ubwo bwicanyi nk’ibyaha bya jenoside. Wrong aragira ati: “Ubutegetsi bwa Kagame bufite amateka mabi y’ihohoterwa ry’uburenganzira bwa muntu akora mu gihugu cye ndetse no mu bihugu by’inshuti; byose akaba abikora agamije guhishira ubwicanyi ndengakamere yakoze.” Wrong ababazwa n’uko: “Inkunga z’iburengerazuba mu gihugu cye zitigeze zihagarikwa, inkuru z’abanyamakuru zimushimagiza ntizihagarare, kandi akaba akomeje gutumirwa mu manama mpuzamahanga akomeye.” Ubwicanyi bukabije bwakozwe na Paul Kagame muri Kongo burimo ubwicanyi bwa Beni nk’uko bwanditswe mu gitabo cya Boniface Musavuli yise “Ubwicanyi bwa Beni: Abayisilamu b’ibinyoma no kwigarurira kw’Abanyarwanda kudashira.” Ubwo ni ubwicanyi bwahitanye imbaga bwateguwe kandi bushyirwa mu bikorwa n’abasirikare ba Paul Kagame muri Zayire icyo gihe, ikaba yarabaye Repubulika Iharanira Demokarasi ya Kongo, bwatangiye muri 1996 kandi n’ubu buracyakomeza.

Paul Kagame mu gusahura umutungo wa Kongo

Ubu u Rwanda ni kimwe mu bihugu by’isi bikora amabati, tantalumu, na tungsten, kandi byohereza mu mahanga zahabu na mabuye y’agaciro menshi. Nyamara u Rwanda nta birombe bicukurwamo amabuye y’agaciro rufite kuko n’ibyari bihari ubu bitagikora. Inyandiko nyinshi rero zerekana uruhare rutaziguye rw’ingabo z’u Rwanda muri ubwo bucuruzi bw’amabuye y’agaciro. Nk’’uko byavuzwe haruguru rero ayo mabuye y’agaciro nta handi ava usibye muri Kongo. Igisirikare cy’u Rwanda kiyobowe na Paul Kagame nicyo gifite uruhare runini mu bucuruzi bwa Coltan ikurwa muri Kongo binyuze mu masosiyete ya Rwanda Metals na Grands Lacs Metals. 

Coltan nyinshi yinjira mu Rwanda ivuye mu duce two muri Kongo tugenzurwa n’ingabo z’u Rwanda. Coltan nyinshi yoherezwa i Kigali ihita ishyirwa mu bubiko bwa Paul Kagame (FPR). Igice kinini kijya muri Rwanda Metals naho ikindi kigahita cyoherezwa mu mahanga n’ababishinzwe. 

Raporo iheruka gusohoka ku bucukuzi bw’amabuye y’agaciro, u Rwanda rwatanze hafi 37 ku ijana by’ibicuruzwa byatanzwe ku isi bya tantalum muri 2015, mu gihe Kongo yo  yari ifite 32 ku ijana. Mu by’ukuri, u Rwanda ruri mu ba mbere bakora Tantalum, rutanga hafi 9% ya Tantalum ku isi ikoreshwa mu gukora ibikoresho bya elegitoroniki. Ibi bikaba byemeza neza uburyo Paul Kagame akabije mu gusahura umutungo wa Kongo. 

Umwanzuro

Turashimira cyane Howard W. French na Michela Wrong baduteye inkunga mu kwerekana ishusho y’amayobera ya Paul Kagame. Kuva mu 1990, igihe FPR-Inkotanyi yatangiranga urugamba yise urwo kwibohora, Paul Kagame yahishe ishusho ye y’ibinyoma, amayeri na ruswa. Ibi byamuhaye amahirwe yo kwigarurira umuryango mpuzamahanga utanga inkunga maze abona inkunga nyinshi nyuma ya 1994 kugeza ubu. Ariko, ishusho nyayo ya Paul Kagame (FPR) irimo gushyirwa ahagaragara kandi igasobanuka kuri buri wese. Ukuri kuri jenoside n’ubwicanyi byakozwe n’ubutegetsi bwa Paul Kagame, ukuri ku guhungabanya umutekano w’ibiyaga bigari bikozwe n’abasirikare b’u Rwanda, ukuri ku isahurwa ry’umutungo wa Kongo n’ubutegetsi bwa Paul Kagame kurimo kuramenywa na buri wese. Ese Paul Kagame (FPR) yiteguye kwihana no kwiga kuvugisha ukuri? Hari umugani w’igiheburayo ugira uti: “Igihano cy’umubeshyi ni uko atigera yemerwa n’ubwo yaba avuga ukuri”. N’ubwo ubutegetsi bwa Paul Kagame bwakwiga kuvuga no kuvugisha ukuri, ubanza nta n’umwe uzabwemera. Burya ngo igihe cyatakaye ntikigaruka. 

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