Bidasubirwaho, u Rwanda rubonetse kuri lisiti y’ibihugu bikorana na Sosiyete NSO mu butasi hifashishijwe “Pegasus”

Yanditswe na Arnold Gakuba 

Amakuru icicikanana mu binyamakuru n’amaradiyo mpuzamahanga no mu Rwanda muri ino minsi ni aya Sosiyete y’Ubutasi yitwa “Pegasus” y’Abanyayisiraheli. Ubushakashatsi bwakozwe bukaba bugaragaza ko iyo soaiyete ikoreshwa n’abanyagitugu n’ibihugu by’ibihangange mu kuneka cyane cyane abo batavuga rumwe nabo cyangwa abo bishisha. Leta ya Paul Kagame ikaba ibarirwa ku rutonde rw’abakiriya b’imena ba “Pegasus”. Iyi nkuru irasesengura byimbitse, hifashishijwe ibimenyetso simusiga, imikoreshereze “Pegasus” na Leta ya Paul Kagame ndetse n’impamvu nyamukuru yaba yaratumye Paul Kagame aba umukiriya w’imena wa Pegasus.

Pegasus ni iki? Ikora ite?

Pegasus ni uburyo bw’uhutasi bwakozwe n’ikigo NSO cyo muri Isiraheli. Ubu buryo bukaba bushobora gushyirwa rwihishwa muri telefone zigendanwa hamwe n’ibindi bikoresho bikoresha sisitemu nyinshi nka iOS cyangwa Android.

Umushinga Pegasus wa 2021 werekana ko porogaramu ya Pegasus iriho ubu ishobora gukoresha uburyo bwose bwa iOS kugeza kuri iOS 14.6. Nk’uko ikinyamakuru “Washington Post” hamwe n’ibindi bitangazamakuru bikomeye bibitangaza, Pegasus ntishobora gusa kugenzura urufunguzo rw’ibanze rw’itumanaho kuri telefone (inyandiko, emails….) ahubwo inafasha gukurikirana amajwi y’abahamagarana kuri telefoni no gukurikirana aho baherereye. 

Pegasus yashyiriweho kugirango yinjire muri telefoni zigendanwa – Android na iOS – no kuzihindura ibikoresho byo kugenzura no kuneka. Ikindi ariko sosiyete yo muri Isiraheli iyicuruza nk’igikoresho cyo gukurikirana abagizi ba nabi n’iterabwoba.

 

Ubu ikivugwa ni uko guverinoma nyinshi zo ku isi, cyane cyane izo mu bihugu birimo ubutegetsi bw’igitugu, zikoresha ubu buryo mu rwego rwo gutata ababa batishimiye leta zabo cyagwa abaharanira impinduka.

Ni bande banekwa hakoreshejwe Pegasus

Magingo aya, haba hari nimero zisaga 50.000 ku isi zigenzurwa na Pegasus. Mu mwaka wa 2016 nibwo imiryango Forbidden Stories na Amnesty International zabonye lisiti ya nimero 50.000 za telefoni abakiriya ba sosiyete NSO bagenzuraga. Iyo miryango yasanze nibura abanyamakuru 180, abanyapolitiki 600, abaharanira uburenganzira bwa muntu 85 ndetse n’abakuriye za sosiyete 65 bakurikiranwa. 

Ku itariki a 20 Nyakanga 2021, ikinyamakuru “The Guardian” cyasohoye inkuru ivuga ko abajyamakuru barenga 180 banekwa hakoreshejwe Pegasus.  Muri abo banyamakuru harimo ab’ibinyamakuru, amaradiyo na televiziyo bikurikira Wall Street Journal, CNN, the New York Times, Al Jazeera, France 24, Radio Free Europe, Mediapart, El País, Associated Press, Le Monde, Bloomberg, Agence France-Presse, the Economist, Reuters and Voice of America. Dore lisiti y’ibihugu bikekwa kuba gukorana na sosiyete NSO muri gahunda ya Pegasus. 

 

Muri ibi bihugu harimo abanyamakuru benshi  banenga imikorere mibi ya za Leta z’ibyo bihugu. Ubusesenguzi bukaba bwaragaragaje ko guverinoma za Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Hungary, India, Kazakhstan, Mexico, Morocco, Rwanda na Saudi Arabia ziyemeje gukurikirana abanyamakuru benshi bo muri ibyo bihugu hakoreshejwe Pegasus. 

Si abanyamakuru gusa banekwa, ahubwo za guverinoma zikoresha Pegasus mu kuneka abatavuga rumwe n’ubutegetsi n’abandi banyapolitiki.  Amakuru dukesha Radiyo “Ijwi ry’Amerika” (VOA) yo ku wa 19 Nyakanga 2021 yemeza ko  Pegasus ishobora kuba yaranetse telefoni ngendanwa zirenga 50,000 mu bihugu byibura 50 bitandukanye, zirimo iz’abanyamakuru (barimo n’ab’Ijwi ry’Amerika tutaramenya amazina), abanyapolitiki cyane cyane abatavuga rumwe na za leta, abayobozi b’ibigo by’ubucuruzi, abarimu ba za kaminuza, abadipolomate, abayobozi ba za sendika, impirimbanyi za demokarasi n’iz’uburenganzira bwa muntu, ndetse n’abakuru b’ibihugu. Aya makuru kandi yemezwa n’itangazakuru ryo muri Isiraheli ryemeza ko Pegasus ari intwaro ikomeye y’abanyagitugu ku isi yose.

Ikoreshwa rya Pegasus na Leta ya Kagame

Ibimenyetso bishya kandi simusiga byavumbuwe na Amnesty International na Forbidden Stories byagaragaje ko abategetsi b’u Rwanda bakoresheje Pegasus kugirango bibasire abarwanashyaka, abanyamakuru n’abanyapolitiki barenga 3.500. 

N’ubwo ubusesenguzi bugikomeje, dore urutonde rw’abantu bibasiwe na Leta ya Paul Kagame binyujijwe muri Pegasus nk’uko byatangajwe na “The Guardian” ku wa 19 Nyakanga 2021, Daily Monitor ku wa 21 Nyakanga 2021 na David Himbara. 

Abanyarwanda:

1. Carine Kanimna (umukobwa wa Paul Rsesabagina)

2. Dr.David HIMBARA (wahungiye muri Canada akaba yarabaye umujyanama wa Paul Kagame)

3. Jean Paul TURAYISHIMIYE (wahungiye muri Amerika)

4. Cassien NTAMUHANGA (Wafatiwe muri Mozambike akaba ubu yaraburiwe irengero)

4. Bob Mugabe (umunyamakuru mu Rwanda)

5. Eric BAGIRUWUBUSA (umunyamakuru w’Ijwi ry’Amerika-VOA)

6. Gatera Gashabana (unyamategeko wunganira abanyapolitiki mu manza)

7. Frank NTWALI (wahungiye muri Afrika y’Epfo akaba na muramu wa Kayumba Nyamwasa)

8. Kennedy GIHANA (wahunguye muri Afrika y’Epfo)

9. Etienne MUTABAZI (wahungiye muri Afrika y’Epfo) n’abandi benshi. 

Uru rutonde dushyize ahagaragara ni urwatangajwe mu bitangazamakuru bitandukanye. Ikigaragara kuri uru rutonde ni uko Paul Kagame yibanda cyane kuneka abatavuga rumwe n’ubutegetsi ariko cyane cyane abakoranye nawe bamuzi neza, ababaye mu Rwanda ku ngoma ye maze kubera kunanirwa n’imikorere y’ingoma ye bagahitamo guhunga u Rwamda. Ibyo byiciro byaba biri muri bimwe bihangayikisha Paul Kagame kubera ko bazi neza imikorere ye mibi cyangwa bakaba baharanira impunduka nziza mu Rwanda. 

Abanyamahanga

1. Cyril Ramaphosa (Perezida wa Afrika y’Epfo)

2. Ruhakana Rugunda (wahoze ari Minisitiri w’Intebe wa  Uganda)

3. Gen. Alain Guillaume Bunyoni (Minisitiri w’Intebe w’Uburundi)

4. Gen. David Muhozi (wahoze ayobora ingabo za Uganda ubu akaba ari Minisiriti w’Ubutegetsi bw’Igihugu wa Uganda)

5. Sam Kutesa (wahoze ari Minisitiri w’Ububanyi n’Amahanga wa Uganda)

6. Joseph Ochwet (umukozi ukuriye ubutasi bwo hanze muri Uganda)

7. Andrew Mwenda ( Umuganda wigeze kuba umujyanama wa Paul Kagame)

8. Kennedy Katombe (umumyamakuru wo muri DRC ukorera Reuters)

9. Lambert Mende (wabaye Minisitiri w’Itangazamakuru muri RDC)

10. Albert Yumi (umwizerwa wa perezida wa RDC)

11. Jean Bamanisa Saïdi (Guverineri w’Intara ya Ituri muri RDC)

12. Fred Nyanzi Ssentamu (umuvandimwe wa Bobi  Wine utavuga rumwe na Leta ya Uganda)

Uru rutonde ruragaragaza neza ko Paul Kagame yibasiye ibihugu by’ibituranyi cyane cyane Uganda, DRC n’Uburundi. Kuneka bamwe mu bayobozi ba Uganda n’Uburundu byaba bifitanye isano n’ubwumvikane buke bwa politiki bwaranze u Rwanda n’ibyo bihugu mu bihe byahise kandi n’ubu bukaba bukirimo agatotsi. Ku ruhande rwa DRC, Paul Kagame ashobora kuba abiterwa n’inyungu afite mu Karere ka Kivu. Ku bijyanye n’abari mu gihugu cya Afrika y’Epfo n’ahandi, impamvu ishobora kuba ari uko ibyo bihugu bicumbikiye impunzi nyinshi z’abanyarwanda (abanyapolitiki, abasirikare, abaharanira impinduka mu Rwanda) bahunze ubutegetsi bwa Paul Kagame.

Nk’uko byatangajwe n’Ijwi ry’Amerika ku wa 21 Nyakanga 2021, Paul Kagame yaba ashora akayabo k’amadolari mu butasi bunyujijwe kuri Pegasus. Amakuru atangazwa na New York Times yemeza ko igiciro cy’ubutasi kuri telefoni ngendanwa gishobora kugera kuri miliyoni imwe y’amadolari y’Amerika kugirango ikoreshwe muri telefoni 10 gusa, utabariyemo ayo kuyishyira muri telefoni. Ubu buryo “Pegasus” bwatangiye gukora muri 2010, bukaba bumaze imyaka arenga 10 bukora. Magingo aya, sosiyete ibukoresha NSO ishobora kuba yarahawe akayabo na Paul Kagame kuva yatangira manda ye ya kabiri ubwo benshi mu bo bakoranaga batumvikanye nawe, kubera amakosa ye, maze bagahungira mu mahanga ngo bakize amagara yabo. Bamwe ariko ntibyabahiriye kuko abifashijwemo n’ubutasi hari abo yivuganye, twavuga nka Patrick Karegeya.

Twanzure

Ubutegetsi bwa Paul Kagame bwubakiye ku butasi, dore ko ari nawo murimo yakoze igihe kinini mbere y’uko agera ku butegetsi bw’u Rwanda. Kwitabaza Pegasus mu butasi bwe byabaye igisubizo kuri Paul Kagame wagwije abo yita abanzi – kandi abeshya –  impande n’impande haha mu gihugu imbere no hanze yacyo kubera ko bamubwiza ukuri ku makosa ye maze bakamusaba ko yayakosora. N’ubwo Leta ya Paul Kagame ihakana gukoresha Pegasus, ibyo ni ibisanzwe kuko itahita ibyemera, yaba ishora akayabo mu butasi kuko ari imwe mu ntwaro zitumye Paul Kagame arambye ku ngoma. Itangazo Mpuzamahanga ry’Uburenganzira bwa muntu n’amasezerano mpuzamahanga y’Umuryango w’Abibumbye y’Uburenganzira bwa muntu asobanura ko kurinda ibanga ry’ubuzima bwite bwa muntu ari uburenganzira. Biragira biti “Nta muntu ugomba kwivanga mu buryo butemewe mu ibanga rya muntu, umuryango, urugo cyangwa inzandiko.” Kubera iyo mpamvu, uburenganzira bw’ibanga bwite bukubiyemo ibintu byose bigize ubuzima bw’umuntu ku giti cye ndetse no gutunganya amakuru bwite kuri leta n’imiryango yigenga. Nyuma y’uko Pegasus yakoreshejwe mu kwica amategeko mpuzamahanga, amaherezo y’abayarenzeho na Paul Kagame arimo ni ayahe? Ese bizagenda bite ko Paul Kagame yagaragaweho ko nta mategeko cyangwa amasezerano agenderaho, yaba ayo mu Rwanda cyangwa mpuzamahanga? 

LEAVE A REPLY

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.