ESE IBYAHA TEWONISITI NSENGIMANA (UMUBAVU) NA BAGENZI BAKURIKIRANYWEHO, BIGIZWE N’IBIKORWA BYABAYEHO KOKO?

Yanditswe na Valentin Akayezu Muhumuza
Iri sesengura rishingiye ku biteganywa n’ Itegeko Nº 68/2018 ryo ku wa 30/08/2018 ryatangajwe muri Gazette ya Leta N0 idasanzwe yo kuwa 27/09/2018 riteganya ibyaha n’ibihano muri rusange (ibyo twita code pénal).
Amategeko y’u Rwanda ateganya ko kugirango icyaha kibeho kandi gikurikiranywehagomba kuba hari ibintu bitatu by’ingenzi bigomba kuba bigaragara: 1)Ubushake bwo gukora icyaha(intention ou élément moral), 2) Igikorwa cyakozwe aricyo kitwa icyaha(élément matériel), no 3) hari itegeko ryateganyije ko icyo gikorwa kitwa icyaha kigomba guhanwa(élément légal). Iyo ibyo bintu uko ari bitatu bibuze cyangwa kimwe muri byo kibuze, igikorwa cy’ikurikinacyaha(action de poursuite) nta gaciro kiba gifite ndetse n’impamvu ifatika ituma urukiko rwaregewe rwose rutagomba kwemera kwakira ikirego cy’ubushinjacyaha.
Turebye igikorwa cy’ubushinjacyaha cyo gukurikirana no gusaba ko Tewonisiti Nsengimana na bagenzi be icyenda bakurikiranywa bafunze by’agateganyo, byabaye ngombwa ko hagaragazwa ko muri za mpamvu eshatu zisabwa ngo igikorwa kibe cyujuje ibyangombwa biteganywa n’itegeko kugira ngo kibashe gukurikiranwa no kurengerwa, reka turebere hamwe ko ibikorwa bakurikiranweho byabayeho koko bityo bikaba bikwiye ko bakurikiranwa nk’ababikoze koko? Mbanze nibutse hano ko tureba ku bikorwa gusa (faits), tutari burebe ku bakurikiranywe (qualité de personnes poursuivies : nka Tewonisiti ni Umunyamakuru ugomba kubanza gukurikiranwa hateganyijwe ibyo amategeko agenga umwuga w’Itangazamakuru ateganya).
Duhereye ku gikorwa kiswe gucura umugambi wo gukora icyaha (Conspirancy to commit an offence/conspiration de commettre une infraction), ingingo ya 20 ya code penali ivuga ko gucura umugambi wo gukora icyaha ni ubwumvikane hagati y’abantu babiri (2) cyangwa benshi bugamije gukora icyaha cyakorwa n’umwe cyangwa benshi muri bo. Gucura umugambi wo gukora icyaha bihanishwa igihano giteganyirijwe icyaha cyacuriwe umugambi. Ubundi igikorwa gihanwa, itegeko rigomba kuba rigaragaza cyangwa ryarateganyije ubwaryo ko mu mikorere yacyo, hagomba kugaragaramo umugambi. Reka dufate urugero mu biteganyijwe mu ngingo ya 91 ihana icyaha cya genocide noneho by’umwihariko ingingo ya 93 yo igateganya ibindi bikorwa bihanwa n’icyaha cya genoside bigera kuri bitanu birimo no gucura umugambi wa genoside. Ntabwo rero bishoboka ko umushinjacyaha ashobora kuvuga ko habaye gucura umugambi wo gukora icyaha ku gikorwa runaka, mu gihe cyose itegeko ritigeze rigaragaza ko mu ikorwa ry’icyo cyaha, gucura umugambi wo kugikora bigomba kugaragara mu bigomba kwitabwaho.
Ikindi gikomeye kigaragaramo gukurikirana aba bantu icyenda by’agatsi, ni uko ubushinjacyaha bwivugira ko bakoze amahugurwa. Kwiga uburyo abaturage bakoresha mu guhangana n’ubutegetsi bw’igitugu, ni amasomo atangwa muri za Kaminuza hirya no hino kw’isi, ndetse kuriza mudasobwa hatangirwa mwene izo nyigisho kuburyo mu iterambere ry’ikoranabuhanga, ni abanyarwanda bemnshi babasha kubona mwene izo nyigisho. Ariko rero ikibazo gikomeye, ni ukuba ubushinjacyaha buvuga ko bakoze amahugurwa bagamije kwiga uburyo bazakoresha. Mu mategeko iyo ukoresheje imvugo ngo “ugamije” uba werekana icyo bita “le mobile de commettre une infraction”. Iyo rero mobile itigeze ikurikirwa n’ibikorwa bigaragara, ubwayo ntihanwa. Ityo ni ihame rusange rikoreshwa mu mategeko mpanabyaha. Ubushinjacyaha rero bigaragara ko bukurikiranye abantu ku bikorwa bitigeze bibaho, ibyo bikaba ari agahomamunwa kubona urukiko rwemera kwakira ubusabe bwo gufunga abantu by’agateganyo ngo hakorwe iperereza ku bikorwa bitigeze bibaho.
Reka turebe nyirizina, ibyo bikorwa bitabayeho Tewonisiti na bagenzi bakurikiranyweho, uburyo bisobanurwa mu mategeko.
Ingingo ya 39 y’itegeko No 60/2018 ryo kwa 22/08/20218 ryerekeye gukumira no guhana ibyaha bikoresheje ikoranabuhanga irebana no guhana ibyiotwa Gutangaza amakuru y’ibihuha. Iyo ngingo igira iti: Umuntu wese, ubizi, wifashishije mudasobwa cyangwa urusobe rwa mudasobwa atangaza amakuru y’ibihuha ashobora guteza ubwoba, imvururu cyangwa ihohotera muri rubanda cyangwa ashobora gutuma umuntu atakarizwa icyizere, aba akoze icyaha. Iyo ngingo ihura neza n’ibivugwa mu ngingo ya 194: Gukwiza amakuru atariyo cyangwa icengezamatwara bigamije kwangisha Leta y’u Rwanda mu bihugu by’amahanga Umuntu wese ukwiza amakuru atari yo cyangwa icengezamatwara bigamije kwangisha rubanda Leta y’u Rwanda cyangwa ayo makuru cyangwa icengezamatwara byatera cyangwa bishobora gutera rubanda cyangwa amahanga kwanga Leta y’u Rwanda, aba akoze icyaha. Iyo abihamije n’urukiko, ahanishwa, mu gihe cy’intambara, igifungo cya burundu. Mu gihe cy’amahoro, ahanishwa igifungo kitari munsi y’imyaka irindwi (7) ariko kitarenze imyaka icumi (10).
Kubirebana n’izi ngingo, ubushinjacyaha hari aho bwagiye buvuga ko hari ibyatangajwe nko kubirebana n’urupfu rwa Kizito Mihigo ngo kandi kuba haragaragajwe ko Kizito Mihigo atiyahuye ubwo ababivuga baba bakwiza ibihuha. Ibindi nibirebana na Cassiyani Ntamuhanga ngo kuba yarafatiwe muri Mozambike ababyitirira u Rwanda bakwiza ibihuha. Uretse ko izi ngingo zihana ibyitwa ibihuha, nta kindi gihugu kizima bigaragaramo, uretse ibihugu bikorera mu bwiru gusa, ariko ni ibyitwa ibihuha ubwabyo sibyo kuko hakozwe raporo nyinshi ndetse mpuzamahaganga zivuga kuri abo bantu babiri ndetse hanasabwa ko Leta y’U Rwanda yemera ko habaho amaperereza yigenga ariko irabyanga. Aha bikaba bigaragara neza ko utera ikibazo ari Leta y’u Rwanda ubwayo ikomeza kuzitira ko umucyo ubaho kuri ibyo bibazo, bityo abafite impungenge ko ibivugwa na Leta atari ukuri, ntibashobora kuba aribo bafatwa nk’ikibazo. Ikindi giteye inkeke ihanwa ry’ibi byaha ni uko hakoreshwamo amagambo agira ati “….byatera cyangwa bishobora gutera rubanda cyangwa amahanga kwanga Leta y’u Rwanda….”. Imvugo probabilité ubwayo irerekana ko Leta ihana ibikorwa ubwayo idashobora gusobanura ingaruka nyakuri byateye. Ikindi ni uko izi ngingo rwose zidakenewe, kuko mu nta muntu watera leta kwanga na rubanda cg amahanga, ahubwo imigirire ya Leta ubwayo niyo iyitera kurebwa nabi. Guhana ibyitwa ibihuha, akaba ari ibintu by’urukozasoni ku gihugu.
Ingingo ya 204 ihana ibirebana no guteza imvururu cyangwa imidugararo muri rubanda, aho igira iti: Umuntu wese, mu ruhame, ukoresha imvugo, inyandiko z’ubwoko bwose, amashusho cyangwa ibimenyetso by’amoko yose, bimanitswe, bitanzwe, biguzwe cyangwa bigurishijwe cyangwa bitangajwe mu bundi buryo bwose, uwangisha rubanda ubutegetsi buriho, utera imvururu mu baturage ashaka ko basubiranamo cyangwa utera rubanda intugunda ashaka kubyutsa imidugararo muri Repubulika y’u Rwanda, aba akoze icyaha.
Harebwe ibiteganywa n’iyi ngingo, umuntu wese yakwibaza igikorwa ubushinjacyaha bukurikiranye kuri Tewonisti na bagenzi be icyo aricyo?!! Ubushinjacyaha, burivugira neza ko abantu bakoze amahugurwa. Hanyuma buhindukira bute bukavuga ko ayo mahugurwa yari imyigaragambyo? Niba se icyari kigamijwe kwari ugukora imyigaragambyo, ibyo bikorwa bikaba bitarabaye, impamvu yo gukurikirana abantu ku bikorwa bitabaye ni iyihe? Biteye isoni kuba urukiko rwaremeye, ubusabe bw’ubushinjacyaha, bugafunga by’agacinyizo abantu bazira ubusa kuko ibikorwa bakekwaho ntabyo bakoze.
Ingingo ya 224 ihana ibirebana no gushyiraho umutwe w’abagizi ba nabi cyangwa kuwujyamo. Iyo ngingo igira iti: Umuntu wese urema umutwe ugamije kugirira nabi abantu cyangwa ibyabo, hatitawe ku mubare w’abawugize cyangwa igihe uzamara, ufasha kuwushyiraho, uwuyobora, uwutunganya, uwujyamo, uwoshya abandi kuwujyamo, uwushyiramo abantu ku gahato, aba akoze icyaha. Nanone imikorere y’agahomamunwa y’ubushinjacyaha, iragaragaza ko abantu bari mu mahugurwa, akaba aribyo byahindutse kwitwa kurema umutwe w’abagizi ba nabi. Noneho iyi ngingo ubwayo igaragaza ko mu kurema umutwe w’abagizi ba nabi haba hagamijwe kugirira nabi abantu cyangwa ibyabo.
Ubushinjacyaha hano ntibushobora kugaragaza ibi bintu kuko abakurikiranywe ntawe bigeze bagambirira kugirira nabi. Ikindi ni uko ubushinjacyaha butanashobora kwitiranya ubutegetsi n’abantu. Bityo iyi ngingo ikaba nta naho ihuriye n’ibikekwa kuri Tewonisti na bagenzi be. Biteye isoni kuba ubushinjacyaha ndetse n’urukiko batumva neza icyo kurema umutwe w’abagizi ba nabi bisobanuye, kugera aho babyitiranya n’igikorwa cyo kwihugura abantu bagamije kurwanira uburenganzira bwabo.
Ingingo ya 225 ihana icyaha cyo kwigaragambya cyangwa gukoresha inama mu buryo bunyuranyije n’amategeko Umuntu wese wigaragambya cyangwa ukoresha inama mu buryo bunyuranyije n’amategeko cyangwa wigaragambya mu nzira nyabagendwa atabiherewe uburenganzira, aba akoze icyaha. Mu gihe ibikorwa bivugwa byahungabanyije umutekano, ituze cyangwa ubuzima, igihano kiba igifungo kitari munsi y’amezi atandatu (6) ariko kitarenze umwaka umwe (1) n’ihazabu y’amafaranga y’u Rwanda atari munsi ya miliyoni eshatu (3.000.000 FRW) ariko atarenze miliyoni eshanu (5.000.000 FRW).
Kwigaragambya bivugwa mu gika cya mbere cy’iyi ngingo ni igikorwa cy’agatsiko k’abantu bateraniye ahantu hahurirwa n’abantu benshi, kugirango berekane ikibari ku mutima cyangwa icyo batekereza, bavuga, bagira icyo bakora cyangwa basakuza. Naho Inama ikoreshejwe ku mugaragaro ni inama yose rubanda rwemerewe kuzamo cyangwa rwatumiwemo. Iyi ngingo ya 225 ivuga yeruye imyigaragambyo kandi igasobanura ko imyigaragamyo ari ibikorwa byabereye ahahurirwa n’abantu benshi. Inama nazo zikaba izo rubanda rwemerewe kuzamo. None igikorwa cyo kwihugura, ahantu hateraniye itsinda rito kandi hatagaragara ko rubanda rwahamagariwe kwitabira uko kwihugura, bihindurwamo ibikorwa byo kwigaragambya gute cg gukoresha inama zitemewe? Gukurikirana Tewonisti na bagenzi be kuri iki gikorwa ni ukwabika isoni, urwego rw’ubucamanza mu Rwanda.
Mu Gusoza, ibyaha byose uko byakabaye Tewonesti na bagenzi be bakurikiranyweho, ni ibikorwa bitabayeho, wenda ubushinjacyaha bwehengekereza ku cyaha cyo gukwirakwiza ibyitwa ibihuha bitewe n’imiterere y’uburyo icyo cyaha gisobanuwe mu mategeko, ariko hibutswa ko nta gihugu kiyubashye cyagira ingingo zihana ibyitwa ibihuha mu mategeko yacyo. Dosiye y’ubushinjacyaha, no kuba urukiko rwarakiriwe ubusabe bw’ubushinjacyaha bugafunga Tewonisti na bagenzi be, birashimangira igisebo kiri ku rwego rw’ubucamanza kandi bigashimangira kurushaho, ko ari urwego rutagira ubwinyagamburiro mu mikorere yarwo.

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