Ese koko abanyarwanda ntibarasobanukirwa uburyo inzirabwoba zatsinzwe?

Radiyo Inkingi iherutse kutugezaho ibiganiro bibiri bisesengura uburyo intambara ya FPR n’ubutegetsi bwa Habyarimana yagenze. Ikiganiro cya mbere kibanze ku ngingo y’amasezerano ya Arusha yemereye bataillon ya FPR kuza muri CND izanywe no kurinda inkotanyi zagombaga kujya muri guverinoma no mu nteko ishinga amategeko. Icyo kiganiro cyari cyatumiwemo Yozefu Bukeye wakoraga muri ambassade y’u Rwanda i Kampala mbere y’uko FPR itangiza intambara no mu gihe cyose intambara yamaze. Undi mutumirwa yari Anasitazi Gasana wari ministiri w’ububanyi n’amahanga igihe cy’isinywa ry’amasezerano ya Arusha ndetse na nyuma yaho. Ikiganiro cya kabiri cyari kirekire cyane ariko cyaciwemo ibice bine. Abatumirwa bari Yozefu Bukeye (warugarutse), hamwe n’abandi babiri aribo professeur Laurien Uwizeyimana (wigishije muri kaminuza y’u Rwanda no muri kaminuza ya Toulouse mu Bufaransa) n’undi witwa Etienne Mutabazi wahoze mu ngabo z’u Rwanda. Ndagirango mbanze nshimire Gaspard Musabyimana watugejejeho ibyo biganiro, nshimire n’abatumirwa be batugejejeho ibitekerezo byabo.

Muri iyi nyandiko ndifuza nanjye gutanga ibitekerezo ku bibazo bikomeye byavuzwe, cyokora ndagerageza kwibanda ku bitaravuzwe kandi mbona bikomeye. Singaruka ku kinyoma cyavuzwe cyane mu mezi ya mbere yakurikiye igitero cya FPR, cyavugaga ko u Rwanda rwatewe rutunguwe kuko abatumirwa bose barakinyomoje. Singaruka no ku mibare professeur Laurien Uwizeyimana yatanze yerekana ko u Rwanda rwashyize ingufu nkeya mu kwitegura intambara kandi hari ibimenyetso byinshi byerekana ko igihugu gishobora guterwa n’impunzi zari mu bihugu bidukikije, cyane cyane izari i Bugande zari zimaze gushyira ku butegetsi perezida Kaguta Museveni. Icyo ni ikintu gikomeye kandi cyatugizeho ingaruka twese ariko byaravuzwe bihagije simbigarukaho. Ndagerageza gusobanura mu magambo make iby’ingenzi mbona byatumye inzirabwoba zitsindwa, ndasoreza ku ngingo bahereyeho mu kiganiro cya mbere yo gushyira bataillon ya FPR muri CND.

A. Dore impamvu mbona inzirabwoba zatsinzwe :

1) FPR yateye mu gihe ubutegetsi bwa Habyarimana bwari bufite intege nkeya cyane.

Tumaze iminsi twumva ibiganiro bya Radiyo Ijwi ry’Amerika ku bwicanyi bwakurikiye kudeta ya Habyarimana. Ubu bwicanyi bwari igisebo gikomeye Habyarimana yari yicaranye. Babanje kubigira ibanga, bigezaho babyegeka kuri Théoneste Lizinde ariko banga ko urubanza rwe ruburanishwa ku mugaragaro. Byabaye ngombwa kumenyesha imiryango yibwiraga ko abantu bayo bafunzwe ko abo bantu bishwe. Uwariwe wese ushyira mu gaciro yumvaga ko politiki y’amahoro n’ubumwe yavugwaga yari icyuka. Ndibutsa ko mu myaka itanu ibanziriza igitero cya FPR abantu bakomeye bakomoka mu majyepfo y’u Rwanda bari barapfuye bazize imfu zidasobanutse ku buryo benshi bakekaga ko ari ubutegetsi bwabahitanye. Muri abo bantu harimo Felicula Nyiramutarambirwa wari muri komite nyobozi ya MRND, Fransisko Muganza wabaye ministiri w’ubuzima, padiri Silvio Sindambiwe wahoze ayobora Kinyamateka. Ndibutsa ko uyu Silvio Sindambiwe, mbere yo gusezera muri Kinyamateka, yabanje guterwa indobo y’amazirantoki, bikozwe n’abakozi baturutse mu biro bikuru by’iperereza byakoreraga muri présidence.

Ndibutsa nanone ko umunyamerikakazi witwaga Diane Fossey (Nyiramacibiri) yiciwe mu birunga aho yakoreraga mu Ruhengeri, hanyuma umukozi we witwaga Rwerekana agapfira muri kasho mu buryo budasobanutse (bavuze ko yiyahuye). Naho umugabo w’umunyamerika witwa Richard Wayne Mac Guire nawe washinjwaga kugira uruhare muri ubwo bwicanyi agafata indege ku mugaragaro akitahira (anyuze i Kanombe). Muribuka ko koloneli Stanislas Mayuya wayoboraga ikigo cy’abasilikare nawe yishwe ku manywa y’ihangu, uwitwa Birori wari wamwishe akicirwa muri kasho mu buryo busa no gushaka kuburizamo anketi.

Ku birebana n’ubukungu, nakwibutsa ko leta y’u Rwanda yari ifite ibibazo bikomeye by’amafaranga ahanini kubera ibiciro by’ikawa ndetse n’icyayi byari byaraguye cyane ku masoko mpuzamahanga. Ibi kubyibutsa ni ngombwa kugirango buri wese yumve uburyo igihugu cyari gihagaze n’ingorane cyari gifite. Iyo igihugu gitewe gifite ubutegetsi bukomeye kandi bushyigikiwe n’abaturage ntabwo bigorana cyane guhangana n’umwanzi. Iyo gitewe gifite ubukungu bumeza neza kiba gishobora kugura intwaro gikeneye kikabasha kwirwanaho. Niyo mpamvu umwanzi ujya kugutera abanza kukwiga neza uko uhagaze.

2) Ubutegetsi bwa Habyarimana bwafashije inkotanyi kwereka amahanga isura mbi yabwo

Inkotanyi zagabye igitero tariki ya 1 ukwakira 1990, nyuma y’iminsi 10 gusa gereza zose n’amasitade byari byuzuye abanyururu bitwaga ibyitso bya FPR. Abo bantu bafashwe hashingiwe gusa ku bwoko bwabo. Bisobanura ko ibyo FPR yateye ishinja leta y’u Rwanda byo kuvangura amoko no gutoteza abatutsi byari bifite ishingiro. Ndibutsa ko igikorwa cyo gufunga ibyitso cyatangijwe n’ikinamico ryakozwe mu mujyi wa Kigali mu ijoro ry’uwa 4 rishyira uwa 5 ukwakira 1990 babeshyako ari inkotanyi zashakaga gufata umujyi wa Kigali. Abari muri Kigali muribuka ukuntu twaraye munsi y’ibitanda twayobewe. Hakurikiyeho ijambo ry’umukuru w’igihugu ryavugaga ko umwanzi ari wa wundi ushaka kugarura ingoma ya cyami, ko agomba guhigwa mu gihugu hose.

Hari abagifata umwanya bakagerageza kutwumvisha ko ibyabaye atari ikinamico ariko ndumva ntawarusha jenerali Léonidas Rusatira wari umunyamabanga mukuru muri ministeri y’ingabo muri icyo gihe byabaga kumenya ibyabaye. Nta n’uwabirusha James Gasana wari muri guverinoma icyo gihe ndetse akaza kuyobora ministeri y’ingabo nyuma y’igihe gito. Abo bombi kimwe n’abandi benshi badafite inyungu zo kubeshya bahamya ko ibyabaye mu ijoro ry’uwa 4 rishyira uwa 5 ukwakira 1990 byari ikinamico. Bwana Célestin Kabanda wari ambasaderi w’u Rwanda mu Misiri, mu gitabo yanditse cyitwa « Rwanda, L’idéal des pionniers » asobanura ko muri iryo joro yari i Kigali muri Hôtel des Diplomates, i Kigali, nawe akarara munsi y’igitanda nkatwe twese. Nyuma yaje gusobanurirwa ko ryari ikinamico rifite impamvu zo gukanga (dissuasion) !

Icyo tudashidikanya nuko iryo kinamico ryatangije igikorwa kiremereye cyo gufata abatutsi nk’ingwate z’ubutegetsi. Muri komini ya Kibilira ho ntibafshe ibyitso gusa ahubwo bishe abatutsi benshi, abandi barabatwikira, inka zirabagwa, abagore bafatwa ku ngufu.

Ibi byagize ingaruka zikomeye ku ntambara. Ingaruka ya mbere nuko abatutsi bumvise ko leta ya Habyarimana itarikiri muri bya bindi bise politiki y’amahoro n’ubumwe. Bumvise ko bari mu kaga ku buryo uwabishoboraga yajyaga gufasha inkotanyi ku rugamba. Icyo ni ikintu gikomeye cyane. Icya kabiri kandi nacyo gikomeye nuko amahanga yahise yumva ko leta ya Habyarimana ibangamiye igice kimwe cy’abaturage bayo. Ibyo bivuga ko iyo leta yari mbi. Bikavuga ko abayirwanya bari bakwiye gushyigikirwa kugirango bayivaneho. Ibi nibyo byatumaga ba Marie France Cros, ba Colette Braeckman, na ba Jean Gol hano mu bubiligi ndetse na ba Carbonare mu bufaransa bahaguruka bagahagarara. Bavugaga ikibazo cyariho. Yozefu Bukeye yatubwiye ko Abanyamerika batari bashyigikiye Inkotanyi mu ntangiriro ariko ngo byagezaho umukozi wo muri ambassade y’abanyamerika i Kampala aramubwira ati : Habyarimana is a bad man. Byavugaga ko isura y’ubutegetsi bwa Habyarimana yangiritse cyane kubera biriya nibukije. Ibyo ubutegetsi bwakoze bwitwa ko burimo guhangana n’umwanzi nibyo byamutije umurindi. Icyo ni ikibazo gikomeye cya stratégie. Abakoraga diplomatie ntacyo bajyaga gukora kindi mu gihe abanyamakuru bazaga gutara amakuru bagasanga turimo guhonyora uburenganzira bw’ikiremwamuntu ku mugaragaro.Twaratewe turitera nk’uko umunyamakuru witwaga Anastase Seruvumba yabyanditse mu Kinyamakuru Imbaga (inomero sinyibuka).

Ubwo mvuga ibyanditswe mu itangazamakuru nagirango nibutse ko uburyo ikinyamakuru «Kangura» cyakoreshejwe cyane mu ntambara nabyo biri mu byahesheje isura mbi ubutegetsi bwa Habyarimana. Byari bitangaje kubona amabanga akomeye y’ubutegetsi atangazwa bwa mbere na Ngeze Hassan warangwaga n’irondabwoko yiyita umucunguzi w’abahutu, ukibaza uburyo ayo mabanga amugeraho. Byageze ubwo abantu bandika ko Kangura yandikirwaga mu gikari kwa Habyarimana. Icyo ni ikibazo gikomeye kuko icyo kinyamakuru nicyo cyasohoye ya mategeko cumi y’abahutu (ni amategeko agamije guteranya abahutu n’abatutsi) hamwe n’izindi nyandiko zabaga zigamije gutoteza abatutsi cyangwa abandi bantu bakomoka mu majyepfo y’igihugu.

3) Jenoside yakorewe abatutsi niyo yahuhuye icyitwaga Inzirabwoba

Aha ngaha harakomeye cyane. Muri biriya biganiro twavuze byayobowe na Gaspard Musabyimana nta na hamwe bavuga ikibazo cy’amahano yabaye mu Rwanda mu ruhande rwagenzurwaga n’ingabo za leta y’icyo gihe kandi izo ngabo zirebera cyangwa zimwe zibifitemo uruhare. Kandi ni hariya twatsindiwe burundu. Ndagirango nshimangire ko mbere yo kugerageza kurimbura ubwoko bw’abatutsi habanje kwica uwari ministiri w’intebe n’abandi banyapolitiki bakomeye bo ku ruhande bitaga opozisiyo. Ingabo za leta zitwaje ibikoresho bihambaye nizo zakoze ayo mahano. Numvise bamwe mu batumirwa ba Gaspard Musabyimana bashyira mu majwi opozisiyo ngo niyo yatanze igihugu. Icyo nicyo na bariya ba Agata Uwilingiyimana, ba Frédéric Nzamurambaho, ba Félicien Ngango, ba Faustin Rucogoza, ba Bonifasi Ngulinzira, ba Charles Ntazinda, n’abandi ntarondoye bazize. Kubica ngo byari uburyo bwo gukuraho amacakubiri mu bahutu kugirango abasigaye bahangane n’inkotanyi ntakibakoma mu nkokora. Icyakurikiyeho nukwica abatutsi mu duce twose ingabo za guverinoma zagenzuraga. Perezida wa repuburika mushya, Théodore Sindikubwabo na guverinoma bagombye kujya i Butare kubicengeza mu baturage kuko nyuma y’ibyumweru bibiri ahandi batsembatsemba i Butare ho ngo bari barigize «ntibindeba».

Abavuga ko opozisiyo ariyo yatanze igihugu bakwiye kuzirikana ahubwo ko muri kiriya gihe opozisiyo yarikenewe cyane. Gucecekesha opozisiyo byagushije igihugu mu kaga gakomeye. Tukiri kuri ibi bya jenoside yakorewe abatutsi nagirango nibutse ko yagize ingaruka zikomeye ku maherezo y’intambara kuko u Rwanda rwahise rufatirwa ibihano bikakaye mu rwego rw’umuryango w’abibumbye. Barwambuye uburenganzira bwo kugura intwaro (embargo). Icyo ni icyemezo kiba kigamije gutuma abagifatiwe batsindwa intambara. Iyo abantu bayobora igihugu bagomba kwirinda ku buryo bushoboka bwose ko icyemezo nka kiriya kibafatirwa. Ubu koko umuntu ashobora guhera he avuga ngo opozisiyo niyo yatsindishije inzirabwoba azi biriya bibazo uko byagenze ? Uretse biriya bihano bya LONI jenoside yakorewe abatutsi yatumye nta n’ahandi hantu ubutegetsi bw’abahutu bwanyura bushakisha intwaro cyangwa amafranga yo gukoresha.

Tugarutse hagati mu banyarwanda, ndibutsa ko iyo jenoside itahitanaga abatutsi gusa. Yicaga n’abahutu, bamwe bazizwa ko ngo ari ibyitso, abandi babibeshyaho kubera isura yabo. Nibutse ko bamwe mu basilikare bari ku rugamba bari bafite bene wabo b’abatutsi (abagore babo, baramu babo, ba sebukwe, ba nyirabukwe). Abanyapolitiki bicwaga nabo bagiraga abavandimwe n’inshuti mu nzirabwoba (nka Nzamurambaho yarafite murumuna we warufite ipeti rya major mu nzirabwoba). Ibyo byose byagize uruhare rukomeye mu gutsindisha ingabo zacu. Aha ndetse ndagirango nshimangire ko mu gihe inzirabwoba zitari zigishoboye kurinda umutekano w’abanyarwanda gutsindwa kwazo byari igisubizo kurusha uko byari ikibazo.

Bamwe bavuga ko gutsembatsemba abatutsi bwari uburyo bwo gutabaza amahanga kugirango aze guhagarika ubwicanyi abonereho no guhagarika inkotanyi zitarafata Kigali. Abandi bavuga ko bwari uburyo bwo kubwira inkotanyi ngo zihagarike intambara kugirango zitimarisha bene wazo. Ibyo byombi kwari ugufata abatutsi ho ingwate. Ingaruka byagize kuri FPR nuko yagaragaye nk’aho ariyo iri mu kuri. Ibyo byayihaye imbaraga zikomeye ku buryo indi jenoside yarimo gukorera abahutu yo yabaye nk’aho ari akabazo gatoya k’abantu bagerageje kwihorera. Uburemere bw’ubwicanyi FPR yagiye ikora ndetse bukinakomeza wenda buzatuma iyo myumvire ihinduka ariko bizatwara igihe.

4) Inzirabwoba ntizitwaye nk’ingabo z’igihugu : irondakoko n’irondakarere byazirushije ingufu

Muri biriya biganiro bya radiyo Inkingi bavuze ko ikibazo cy’uko amacakubiri hagati y’abakiga n’abanyanduga atagize uruhare rukomeye mu mirwano hagati y’inzirabwoba n’inkotanyi. Havuzwe

ndetse ko abasilikare barwanye cyane ari abo mu majyepfo y’igihugu. Batanga urugero kuri jenerali Kabirigi, koloneli Munyangango, koloneli Rwamanywa, major Gasarabwe n’abandi…Etienne Mutabazi ati : kuvuga ko zari ingabo za Habyarimana nukuzipfobya kuko zari ingabo z’igihugu. Mu by’ukuri ntabwo nshidikanya ko hari abasilikare b’inyangamugayo barwanye, bamwe ndetse bakahasiga ubuzima bwabo, bazi ko barimo kurwanira igihugu. Ariko twese tuzi ibibazo byagiye biterwa n’ubwiganze bukabije bw’akarere k’amajyaruguru y’igihugu mu nzirabwoba. Nibyo byatumye haba kudeta yo mu w’1973 igakurikirwa n’amarorerwa twavuze haruguru yaguyemo abo dukesha revolisiyo yo muri 59 hamwe n’abandi bakomokaga mu majyepfo y’igihugu. Ibi nibyo byongeye kuba muri mata 1994 ubwo izo ngabo zishe ministiri w’intebe Agata Uwilingiyimana, zikica Joseph Kavaruganda wari perezida w’urukiko rurinda itegekonshinga, zikica ministiri Nzamurambaho wari perezida wa PSD, zikica ministiri Faustin Rucogoza wo muri MDR, zikica Théoneste Gafaranga na Félicien Ngango bo muri PSD, zikica ministiri Landoald Ndasingwa wa PL , n’abandi tutabasha kurondora. Ibi ntabwo byashoboraga gukorwa n’abiyita ingabo z’igihugu.

Numvise mu kiganiro bavuga ko hari n’abasilikare b’abatutsi barwanaga mu nzirabwoba, cyokora ngo bamwe baje kugambanira igihugu. Umwe ngo yatwaye kajugujugu ayishyira inkotanyi, abandi nabo bakoze ibijya gusa n’ibyo. Iyo umuntu azirikana urugomo rwakorerwaga abatutsi ku mugaragaro kuva muw’ 1990 intambara itangira ntiyabura kwibaza ukuntu n’abandi batutsi bari mu nzirabwoba (sinzi uko banganaga) batakoze ubugambanyi nka buriya… kuko ntibyoroshye kujya kurwanira igihugu usize umugore wawe, abana bawe, ababyeyi bawe, ba sobukwe na nyokobukwe, barumuna bawe na bashiki bawe, bose barimo gukorerwa ibyo tuzi abatutsi bakorewe.

Nagirango nsoze iyi ngingo mvuga ko ingabo z’igihugu bisobanura ingabo abanyarwanda bose bibonamo. Izo ngabo dukeneye kuzubaka kugirango twubake u Rwanda rubereye abanyarwanda bose.

B. Gushyira mu bikorwa amasezerano ya Arusha byasabaga ko Habyarimana yemera kurekura ubutegetsi. Barinze bamwica ataraburekura.

Reka ngaruke ku kibazo cyabajijwe bwa mbere ku mpamvu Habyarimana yemeye gusinya amasezerano ya Arusha handitsemo ko bataillon ya FPR yagomboga gucumbikirwa muri CND, ibyo bikaba byarahaye ingabo za FPR kwinjira mu mujyi wa Kigali mu buryo bworoshye, ari nabyo byazorohereje mu kwica Habyarimana, kwica abantu benshi mu mujyi wa Kigali no gutsinda intambara. Ndemera ibyo Yozefu Bukeye yashubije avuga ko Habyarimana yabyemeye kubera kubura ukundi abigenza. Ingabo za FPR zagenzuraga igice kinini kandi ziri hafi kugera mu murwa mukuru ku buryo gusinya amasezerano y’amahoro aribyo byihutirwaga. Cyokora nanone byaragaragaye ko Habyarimana yamaze gusinya agatangira gutegura uburyo yazakomeza ubutegetsi biciye mu matora yagombaga gukorwa nyuma y’inzibacyuho. Icyo nicyo cyatumye gushyira mu bikorwa ayo masezerano binanirana. Ndibutsa ko radiyo RTLM yashinzwe amasezerano ya Arusha amaze igihe gito ashyizweho umukono. Intego y’iyo radiyo yasaga n’aho ari ugutegura uburyo Habyarimana aziyamamaza nk’umu leader w’abahutu. Icyo cyari ikibazo haba kuri FPR haba no kuri opozisiyo yari mu gihugu.

Mu mishyikirano ya Arusha, igice cyerekeye igabana ry’ubutegetsi, impande zombi zari zemeje ko Habyarimana azayobora inzibacyuho yaguye (nukuvuga harimo na FPR) ariko akaba atarashoboraga kuburizamo icyemezo runaka. Kugirango ibyo bishoboke hemejwe ko abaministiri mu gihe cyo gufata ibyemezo bashoraga gutora hakemezwa icyo benshi batoye. Hari ibyemezo bimwe na bimwe byasabaga bibiri bya gatatu by’amajwi y’abaministiri. Ndetse no mu nteko ishinga amategeko hari ibyemezo byasabaga bibiri bya gatatu by’abadepite. FPR yateganyaga ko izafatanya n’amashyaka MDR, PSD, PL na PDC ku buryo hazajya haboneka ariya majwi yagombaga gutuma ibyemezo Habyarimana atemera bishobora gufatwa. Nyuma y’imishyikirano amashyaka MDR na PL yahuye n’amacakubiri, biza gutuma umubare w’abashoboraga gushyigikira FPR ugabanuka kuko muri ayo macakubiri habaga igice gishyigikiye Habyarimana kandi kiri muri MDR cyangwa PL, hakaba n’igishyigikiye FPR. Ntagushidikanya ko uruhande rwa Habyarimana rwagize uruhare mu kwenyegeza ayo macakubiri.

Bitangiye kugaragara ko imibare yakorewe Arusha mu gihe cy’iganana ry’ubutegetsi ishobora guhinduka Habyarimana yashyigikiye ko ishyaka CDR naryo ryinjira mu nteko ishinga amategeko kuko ryongeraga abadepite bazamushyigikira. FPR yanze uwo mudepite wa CDR yitwaje ko iryo shyaka ryanze gusinyira Arusha ku nyandiko andi mashyaka yari yasinyeho avuga ibirebana n’imyitwarire (code déontologique). Ariko mu by’ukuri FPR ntiyashakaga n’abadepite cyangwa abaministiri bo ku ruhande rwa MDR na PL bitaga pawa, ariko kuvuga abatari bashyigikiye gufatanya na FPR. Ibi nibyo byabujije guverinoma yaguye n’inteko ishinga amategeko irimo FPR kujyaho.

Inkotanyi zahisemo inzira yo kurwana zigafata ubutegetsi bwose ku ngufu mu gihe Habyarimana waruzi ko nta ntwaro zihagije afite yakomeje gushaka uburyo yazaguma ku butegetsi. Bamwishe tariki ya 6 mata 1994 amaze amezi atatu arahiye wenyine, ubundi agashaka ko guverinoma n’inteko ishinga amategeko bishyirwamo abo ku ruhande yashakaga mu gihe amaraporo yahabwaga buri munsi yamwerekaga ko imirwano yongeye kuburwa atayitsinda kuko nta mafaranga yarahari yo kugura intwaro, ndetse n’ inzirabwoba zikaba nta bushake zari zigifite bwo gukomeza kurwana intambara idasobanutse. Mvuze « intambara idasobanutse » kuko kuva amasezerano y’amahoro yasinywa uwo zarwanaga nawe ntiyarakiri umwanzi.

Ndibwira ko ibi bisobanuro ntanze bishobora gufasha abantu kumva impamvu inzirabwoba zatsinzwe kurusha kuvuga ko ikibazo cyaturutse kuri opozisiyo ndetse no ku banyamahanga bashyigikiye inkotanyi.

Bruxelles, le 27/01/2021

Jean Baptiste Nkuliyingoma

1 COMMENT

  1. Ikitumvikana ahubwo nuguha Icyitso nka Nkuliyingoma Jean Bptiste ngo kivuge ku tsinwa ry’Inzirabwoba cyo cyifuzaga. Ntakindi yavuga!!!Ahubwo ajye abazwa ku nsinziya FPR kuko niyo yaharaniraga, uretse ko ubu nawe yimwiza imoso nk’abo yifurizaga gutsindwa kandi ibitangamo umuganda.

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