ESE MU RWANDA, NK’UKO BIHORA BYEMEZWA N’ABATEGETSI, RUSWA IRAHANWA KOKO MU BURYO BUKURIKIZA UKO AMATEGEKO ABITEGANYA?

Valentin Akayezu Muhumuza

Yanditswe na Valentin Akayezu

(ERRATUM: INYUGANIZI Y’UMUSOMYI KU BYAGARAGAYE NK’AMAKOSA:

-amashyaka yose yitabiriye amatora, hatitawe ko yagize 5% agenerwa inkunga ya Leta;
-Kujya muri Forum y’amashyaka n’ubushake bw’umutwe wa politiki(selon itegeko);
-Mukabunani ayobora PS ntabwo ari PSR.)

Ubundi imwe mu miyoboro y’ibanze ifasha gushimangira imikorere ya Leta zikorera mu mucyo, ni uko mu gihugu hagomba kuba hariho inzego za Leta zihamye, zidakorerwamo kandi zikorera mu bwisanzure buhagije. Undi muyoboro ukomeye ugaragara nk’inkingi yo gukorera mu mucyo, ni ukugira mu gihugu itangazamakuru rikomeye kandi rikora koko nk’ijisho rya rubanda. Ibyo bikiyongeraho ko Igihugu kigomba kuba kirangwamo sosiyeti civile yiyemeje koko gukorera inyungu za rubanda. Inkingi mwamba ya kane, ni ukujijuka kw’abaturage.

Mu ndimi z’amahanga bakora itandukaniro hagati y’icyo bita “active citizenship and passive citizenship”. Passive citizenship, ni ba baturage baremye mu myumvire yabo ko Leta ari umubyeyi (État providence). Wumvise imitekerereze y’abanyarwanda, uzabasangana imvugo ngo “dufite Leta idutekerereza”, Perezida akitwa umubyeyi w’igihugu (ariko wakwitegereza uko ayobora, ugasanga bihabanye n’imyumvire yo kugérant igihugu “en bon père de famille” Koko”?). Iyo rero abaturage barekeye amahitamo yabo ko agenwa n’abategeka, niho uzasanga hashyirwamo imirongo yo gukanyaga rubanda, buri wese agashyirwa mu gitutu cyo kutarenga imirongo “itukura” cyangwa kwirinda kunyuranya n’ibyitwa gahunda za Leta!! Abaturage basenyerwa, batabanje guhabwa n’ingurane, bikitwa ko kutabyemera ari ukurwanya gahunda za Leta ndetse urenganyijwe akaba ariwe ugaragazwa nk’ikibazo?! Iyo rero abaturage bahisemo guhumiriza ku bibazo bibareba, bahindurwa na za Leta zibayobye, ba humiriza nkuyobore(obedient people) ariyo mpamvu abaturage bameze gutya, badashobora na gato kuba umusemburo w’impinduka nziza zifuzwa mu gihugu (passive citizens).

Ibyo bintu uko ari bine:

1) Inzego z’ubutegetsi zidakorerwamo,

2) Itangazamakuru ryisanzuye ridakorera ku gitutu cy’abakomeye,

3) Sosiyeti civile itinjirirwa n’abayimunga,

4) Abaturage babasha kwigenera uko babaho batabihitiwemo, ngizo inkingi mwamba zo kurwanya ruswa mu gihugu.

Ese u Rwanda rwaba arizo rwubakiyeho? Buri wese azi igisubizo yakwiha.

Kuki ibigo mpuzamahanga bikomeza gushyira u Rwanda mu bihugu biza imbere mu kurwanya ruswa? Ikidashidikanywaho ni uko abakorera ibyo bigo nabo ruswa batayizira!! Ikindi ni uko ibyo bigo mpuzamahanga usanga bikorera mu murongo ababiha amafaranga yo gukoresha bifuza bityo nabyo bigakora ku buryo inyungu mpuzamahanga zabo zidahungabana. Urugero niba Leta z’ibihugu bikomeye zifite inyungu mu butegetsi bw’i Kigali, izo Leta zizakora ibishoboka byose ubwo butegetsi bwumvikane kandi bugaragare neza mu ruhando mpuzamahanga, bitume abaturage ba za Leta zikeneye Kigali bativovotera ubufasha bwose butangwa!

Indi mpamvu ituma ibigo mpuzamahanga bikomeza guha amanota meza Kigali ni indorerwamo(perspective) bareberamo ikitwa iterambere. Urugero Banki y’Isi yose uzasanga yita cyane kukitwa ‘Imikorere ihamye ya Leta/efficiency of government’. Niba Kigali(FPR) ibasha gushyiraho umurongo w’imikorere, ntihagire urwego na rumwe rubasha kuyivuguruza, Banki y’Isi icyo gihe izavuga ko hari Leta ifitiwe ikizere (Trust), ko nta kajagari kariho mu mikorere y’inzego (Order), bityo gutanga amafaranga ashobora gukoreshwa neza, kandi inguzanyo zikazishyurwa nta kibazo. Ntabwo Banki y’Isi izigera yita ku kiguzi cy’ibyo ibona nk’imikorere myiza ya Leta! Iterabwoba rikoreshwa kugira ngo bigerweho, ntacyo bizaba biyibwiye! Uzasoma rapports za World Economic Forum azabona ko aho zishyira u Rwanda imbere mu korohereza ishoramari, ntaho bazigera bitsitsa kubirebana n’ “ubwisanzure mu gukora iryo shoramari” ahubwo bazareba amategeko yashyizweho n’inzego, hatitawe uko ayo mategeko ashyirwa mu bikorwa cg ubwisanzure bw’izo nzego. Nyamara ibindi bigo byo, uzasanga bivuga ko nta miyoborere myiza ishoboka, abaturage batabigizemo uruhare (effective and efficient citizen participation).

Niyo mpamvu uzasanga imiryango ireba iby’uburenganzira bwa muntu ishyira u Rwanda mu myanya ya nyuma, yewe na cya gihugu kivugwa ko cyateye intambwe ihambaye mu kurwanya ruswa, usange kiri muri bihugu bitatu bya nyuma kw’Isi ku rutonde rw’uko abaturage babayeho bishimye mu bihugu byabo.

Tugarutse kubirebana no kurwanya Ruswa mu Rwanda, twavuga ko hari amategeko ku ruhande rumwe, yashyizweho kandi meza, ariko akaba adakurikizwa nk’uko ingingo zayo ziba zibiteganya, ku rundi ruhande, uzahasanga amategeko ashyirirwaho gutsimbataza ubwikanyize bwa FPR, no gukumira abandi mu kugira uruhare mu miyoberere y’igihugu.

Kuri iyi ngingo ya kabiri, umuntu yavugaho byinshi, ariko reka dufateho urugero rumwe gusa. Itegeko rigenga imitwe ya politiki mu Rwanda rivuga ko nta mutwe wa politiki wemerewe guhabwa inkunga irenze miriyoni imwe y’amafaranga y’U Rwanda kandi nabyo bikabanza gutangirwa uburenganzira n’urwego rw’igihugu rushinzwe imiyoborere(RGB) ndetse n’urwego rw’Umuvunyi. Itegeko rigenga amatora rivuga ko umutwe wa politiki uhabwa inkunga ya Leta iyo wagize byibuze amanota 5% mu matora ya Perezida wa Repubulika(kugeza ubu nta shyaka na rimwe rirayagira guhera mu matora ya 2003).

Itegeko rigenga ihuriro ry’imitwe ya politiki (Forum des partis politiques) rihatira buri mutwe wa politiki kuribera umunyamuryango(amashyaka yose aririmo akaba akorera ku gitutu cy’ikitwa moteri ya gouvernement/FPR). Tugarutse ku itegeko rigenga imitwe ya politiki, iryo tegeko ryemerera imitwe ya Politiki yemewe mu Rwanda, gukora ibikorwa by’ubucuruzi.

Ibi byose ni ukwerekana ko uburyo bwose amashyaka ya politiki yakuramo amafaranga ayafasha mu bikorwa byayo bwafunzwe, uretse gusa ko abategetsi bayo bemera kujya ku ntonde za FPR maze ikazabagenera imyanya ishaka, bitabujije ko imishahara bahembwa bongera bagatangamo ibya cumi bya FPR n’ubwo mu bigaragara atariyo baba babarizwamo. Amashyaka agerageza kwiyamamaza usanga agenerwa nk’umudepite umwe(PSR ya Mukabunani) ifite depite umwe, Green Party ifite umudepite umwe n’umusenateur umwe wagenwe na Forum des partis politiques.

Mu Rwego rwo gukomeza kwiharira ikibuga, FPR yihaye rugari mu gukora ubucuruzi. Twibutse ko ryashoramari rivugwa ryateye imbere, ridashoboka iyo FPR idafitemo akaboko.

Bityo nta wundi mutwe wa politiki n’umwe ukora ibikorwa by’ubucuruzi(n’ubwo amategeko abibemerera kandi kutabikora akaba atari uko batabyitayeho ahubwo ari uko batabyemererwa n’inzego za FPR), ubucuruzi bwose bukorerwa mu Rwanda bukaba bugenzurwa 100/100 na FPR. Uretse n’ibyo, ibigo byayo nka Cristal Venture, Prime Holding, Zigama CSS(yitirirwa ko ari cooperative ya gisirikare ariko ataribyo) Bank of Kigali, Inyange LtD, uruhererekane rw’Amahoteri akomeye, ibigo bya Leta ifitemo imigabane binyuze muri za Cristal Venture, Channel y’amafaranga anyura mu mbuto foundation (ifatwa nka civil philanthropic organization, bityo ntibe mu byo ubugenzuzi bwa Leta bukurikirana) n’ibindi byinshi umuntu atarondora, birahagije kugaragaza uburyo ruswa yashingiye imizi ku mutwe w’Ubutegetsi kandi inzego nk’Ubugenzuzi bukuru bwa Leta(Auditor General Office) budashobora gusunutsayo izuru!! Ubwo ntihavuzwe ishoramari ryo hanze rikorerwa mu bwiru kandi mu mafaranga akomoka mu isanduku ya Leta.

Tuvuye aho, reka turebe imihanirwe y’abaketsweho icyaha cya ruswa kugeza ubu? Mu gihe cyashize, ku rubuga rwa murandasi y’Ibiro bya Ministri w’Intebe, umuntu yahasangaga urutonde rw’abahamijwe ibyaha bya ruswa, rugenda ruvugururwa buri mwaka. Igitangaje n’uko nta mazina y’ibifi binini washoboraga gusangaho uretse abantu bato barya na ruswa y’amafaranga 500 y’amanyarwanda. Igihe kimwe Umugenzuzi w’Imari ya Leta yigeze kubazwa n’abadepite impamvu miriyoni zigera kuri 500 zanyerejwe, ntihagire ukurikiranywa, maze igisubizo kiba ngo iyo si ruswa, ahubwo ni amakosa asanzwe n’ubumenyi bucye!!! Abiba Miliyoni 500 byitwa ikibazo cy’umumenyi bucye, umupolisi wo ku muhanda wariye ruswa ya 1000 Rwf agahanishwa igihano cyo gufungwa imyaka igeze kuri irindwi!!!!! Tugarutse kuri rwa rutonde, umuntu yashoboraga no kubona amazina y’abataracibwa imanza, binyuranye n’ihame ry’uko umuntu akomeza gufatwa nk’umwere mu gihe cyose inkiko zibifitiye ububasha zitaramuhamya icyaha!!

Kubireba ibifi binini, ese bihanwa bite? Mu gusubiza iki kibazo, tubanze twibutse ko amategeko y’U Rwanda, ateganya ko umuntu wese wahamijwe icyaha ku buryo budasubirwaho n’inkiko agahanishwa igihano kirengeje amezi atandatu adashobora kongera guhabwa umurimo mu nzego za Leta. Ibyo kand binashimangirwa n’Itegeko rigenga imyitwarire y’abanyepolitiki mu Rwanda. Igihe umuntu ashobora kongera kwemererwa guhabwa umurimo mu nzego za Leta, ni igihe gusa yaba yarahawe imbabazi n’Itegeko(Amnistie), ibyo bikaba biri mu bubasha bw’inteko ishingamategeko cyangwa se akaba yarahawe ihanagurabusembwa(réhabilitation). Byumvikane neza ko imbabazi zitangwa na Perezida wa Repubulika zidakuraho umuntu ubusembwa yashyizweho n’ibyaha yahamijwe n’inkiko. Reka turebe uko byagendekeye bamwe mu bahanwe:

1)Kalisa Alfredi, wahoze ayobora Banki ya BCDI, yahamijwe n’inkiko icyaha cy’ubuhemu, ahanishwa gufungwa imyaka itanu. Nyuma yaje kurekurwa ahawe imbabazi na Perezida. Nyamara ntibyabujije inama y’abaministiri kumwemeza kuba Ambassadeur w’U Rwanda muri Angola (Ubu yimuriwe I Kayiro mu Misiri). Sénat ubwo yashyikirizwaga dosiye ye ngo imwemeze, Nyakwigendera Mucyo Jean de Dieu wari sénateur icyo gihe, yagaragaje ko Kalisa afite ubusembwa butuma adahabwa izo nshingano, ariko amagambo ye aterwa utwatsi;

2) Kabandana Marc wayoboye RIAM akahava ajya kuba Perefe w’Umujyi wa Kigali, yaje guhagarikwa muri zo nshingano akekwaho kunyereza umutungo wa Leta. Yarafunzwe akatirwa n’inkiko igihano kigeze ku mwaka. Nyamara ntibyabujije ko agirwa umwe mu bagize urwego rw’Igihugu Ngishwanama rw’Inararibonye;

3)Tewonesiti Mutsindashyaka: ubwo yari Guverineri w’Intara y Iburasirazuba, yahagaritswe akekwaho uburiganya bukomeye mu itangwa ry’amasoko ya Leta. Nubwo atigeze agezwa imbere y’inkiko, ariko hashingiwe, ku itegeko rigenga imyitwarire y’abanyepolitiki, ntiyakagombye kongera kugira uruhare mu nzego z’ubuyobozi bw’igihugu! Nyuma y’igihe gito(rubanda idasobanuriwe) yoherejwe I Addis-Abeba guhagararira Leta muri Komisiyo Nyafurika ishinzwe kurwanya iby’ikoreshwa ry’intwaro ntoya, aho yavuye agirwa Ambassadeur I Brazzaville;

4)Musoni Jemus wari warahawe izina rya “Super Minister” bivuye ku buhangange yari afite imbere muri FPR, akaba yaravuzwe mu madosiye menshi yo kwigwizaho umutungo w’igihugu, nyuma akaza kuvugwa mu itangazamakuru ko yatwaye umugore w’undi mugabo, ndetse Kagame ubwe akabigarukaho mu nama za FPR, ntibyabujije ko Musoni Jemus yoherezwa kuba Ambassadeur I Harare muri Zimbabwe kabone n’ubwo ku mugongo we hariho amadosiye akomeye ya Ruswa n’ibindi byaha bifitanye isano nayo;

5)Gatabazi Jean Marie Vianney : uyu mugabo wabaye depite igihe kinini, igihe kimwe ari mu butumwa bw’akazi muri afrika y’epfo akaza gufatwa mu iduka yibye utwambaro tw’imbere(underwears), ubwo yeguzwaga ku mwanya wa Guverineri w’Intara y’Amajyaruguru akekwaho amakosa akomeye, yasabye imbabazi aza kuzihabwa, maze nyuma yo gushimira Kagame ko asubiza umwuka mu mirambo, ashingwa kuyobora Ministeri y’ubutegetsi bw’igihugu;

6) Uwizeyimana Evode: nyuma yo kweguzwa ku mwanya wo kuba umunyamabanga wa Leta muri ministeri y’Ubutabera azira guhohotera umunyarwandakazi wari ku murimo yubahiriza inshingano ze, Evode ubwo busembwa ntibwamubujije ko Kagame amwimurira muri sénat y’U Rwanda;

7) Nduhungirehe Patrick Olivier : uyu mugabo wari umunyamabanga wa Leta muri Ministeri y’ububanyi n’amahanga akaza kwirukanwa azira kunyuranya na gahunda za Leta(zitasobanuwe),yaje koherezwa kuba Ambassadeur I La Haye mu Buholandi hatavuzwe niba yari yabeshyewe;

8)Dr Diane Gashumba: uyu mudamu wahoze ayobora ministeri y’Ubuzima akaza kwirukanwa akekwaho amakosa yo kudacunga ibikoresho byari bigenewe kwirinda Covid-19, ntibyabujije ko yoherezwa I Stockholm muri Suède kuba Ambassadeur(dricel;

9)Mukaruriza Monique: ubwo yari ashinzwe Ministeri y’ibikorwa by’umuryango w’Afrika y’uburasiraziba, yaje kwirukanwa azira amakosa yakoze, ndetse icyo gihe mu kiganiro Kagame yahaye itangazamakuru yagize ati: “Ubundi sinkunda gusobanura ibyo nkora, ariko noneho reka ngire icyo mvuga kuri Monique…”. Cyakoze mu makosa yavuzwe byari ibintu birebana na protocole, abashyitsi ngo baba baraje bakabura ubakira!!! Nyuma gato yaje kugirwa Ambassadeur(drice) I Lusaka, aho yavuye agirwa umuyobozi mukuru muri Ministeri y’ububanyi n’amahanga.

Rero nk’uko Kagame abivuga ko atari umuco we gusobanura ibyo akora, nta gitangaza ko tubona abategetsi bahagarikwa mu nshingano hakerekanwa amakosa yakozwe, ariko kubasubiza mu nshingano, rubanda ntisobanurirwe niba ya makosa ntacyo yari avuze, ntibyatangaza na bwana Bamporiki Édouard, Habumuremyi Pierre Damien, Mpabwanamaguru n’abandi banyabusembwa bongerewe izindi nshingano mu miyoborere y’igihugu.

Ibi umuntu iyo abibonye, akaba yibaza mu kuri ruswa ivugwa ko ihanwa mu Rwanda n’iyihe mu gihe umujura bitamubuza kongera guhabwa urufunguzo rw’undi muryango azanyuramo gukomeza ingeso ze!!?

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