Rwanda: Igihugu kitagendera ku mategeko. Ese ni inde ufite ubutegetsi ? Ubuyobozi bukorera nde?

Yanditswe na Arnold Gakuba

Minisiteri y’ububanyi n’amahanga ya Amerika (The US Department of State), ku itariki ya 30 Werurwe 2021, yashyize ahagaragara raporo ya 2020 ku iyubahirizwa ry’uburenganzira bwa muntu mu Rwanda. Iyi raporo itera kwibaza ibibazo byinshi batandukanye. Ese u Rwanda rufite amategeko arugenda cyangwa ntayo? None se ayo tubona yanditse amaze iki ko atubahirizwa, dore ko nayo ahenshi mu ngingo zayo afifitse? Ese ninde ufite ubutegetsi? Ubutegetsi bukorera nde? Iyi nyandiko ni incamake isesenguye ya raporo yavuzwe haruguru ku bijyanye n’uko ubutegetsi bwa Paul Kagame bwahonyoye uburenganzira bwa muntu muri 2020.

U Rwanda rwitwa ko ari “Republika ishingiye ku itegeko nshinga” kandi ari igihugu kiyobowe n’amashyaka menshi. Byahe birakajya! Ishyaka riri ku butegetsi, FPR-Inkotanyi, rivuga ko riyoboye ihuriro ry’imitwe ya politiki, ariko mu by’ukuri ryamize ayo mashyaka ya politiki yandi. Ikindi cyiyongeraho ni benshi bibaza niba mu Rwanda itegeko nshinga rikorera rubanda cyangwa rikorera ubutegetsi buriho? Raporo yo muri 2020 ku iyubahirizwa ry’uburenganzira bwa muntu mu Rwanda itanga ibisobanuro kuri ibi kibazo abantu benshi bibaza mu ngingo zayo etandatu: kubahiriza ubusugire bwa muntu, kubahiriza ubwisanzure bw’abaturage, umudendezo wo kugira uruhare muri politiki, ruswa no kudakorera mu mucyo kwa guverinoma, uko guverinoma ibona ipereza ry’amahanga n’imiryango itegamiye kuri Leta ku ihohoterwa ry’uburenganzira bwa muntu n’ivangura, ihohoterwa ry’abaturage ndetse n’icuruzwa ry’abantu.

Mu mwaka wa 2017, amatora ya Perezida Paul Kagame ya manda ye ya gatatu y’imyaka irindwi yerekanye  ko  yagize amajwi angana na 99% kuri 98% y’abitabiriye amatora. Icyo cyonyine cyatuma abantu benshi bibaza niba koko mu Rwanda hari Demokarasi. Twibutse ko aya matora yabaye nyuma yo guhindura ingingo ya 101 y’itegeko nshinga ry’u Rwanda bikozwe na Paul Kagame n’ishyaka riri ku butegetsi (FPR) bagamije gusa kugundira butegetsi. Ese niba koko bayobora neza igihugu, kuki bahinduye itegeko nshinga ko n’ubundi abaturage bari butore umukandida wabo? Ese Paul Kagame ni we kamara wo kuyobora u Rwanda cyangwa hari ikindi kihishe inyuma? 

Mu mwaka wa 2018, habaye kandi amatora y’inteko ishinga amategeko umutwe w’abadepite maze abakandida FPR-Inkotanyi n’ubundi aba aribo begukana imyanya hafi ya yose. Aha umuntu yakwibaza niba baratowe cyangwa se baratoranijwe.  Mu matora yombi, yaba ay’umukuru w’igihugu yo mu 2017 ndetse n’abadepite yo muri 2018, dorerezi mpuzamahanga zanenze ko habayemo byinshi bitagenda neza. Muri Nzeri 2019, hashyizweho kandi abasenateri bashya 12 bose batoranijwe na Paul Kagame (FPR). Twibutse ko mu buyobozi bwa Repubulika ishingiye ku itegeko nshinga, ubutegetsi bushyirwaho ku buryo bwa demokarasi abaturage babigizemo uruhare, kandi amategeko, umukuru w’igihugu ndetse n’abandi bayobozi bashyirirwaho abaturage. Ese mu Rwanda niko bimeze?

Polisi y’u Rwanda iyobowe na Minisiteri y’ubutabera ndetse n’ingabo z’u Rwanda ziyobowe na Minisiteri y’ingabo, ubundi bafite inshingano zo kurinda umutekano w’imbere mu gihugu dentse no hanze yacyo bafatanije na guverinoma n’ubuyobozi bw’ibanze. Nyamara ariko mu Rwanda siko bimeze, kuko mu mwaka wa 2020 ndetse na mbere yaho abagize inzego z’umutekano bashyigikiwe na guverinoma bagaragaweho kutubahiriza amategeko no guhohotera rubanda. Mbere na mbere, guverinoma yagaragaweho gutubahiriza uburenganzira bwa muntu ndetse no gukora ubwicanyi nk’uko bigaragara mu mbonerahamwe ikurikira. 

Imbonerahammwe ya 1: Urutonde bw’ubwicanyi Leta yakoze butemewe n’amategeko muri 2020

NoAmazinaUmurimoItarikiIbisobanuro
1Kizito MihigoUmuhanzi w’indirimbo z’Imana17 Gashyantare Basanze yapfiriye mu maboko ya polisi 
2Anselme MutuyimanaUmurwanashyaka wa FDU-InkingiWerurwe Iperereza rya Polisi ntiryigeze rikomeza
3Abantu benshi biciwe i NyanzaAbaturageWerurwe Abarenze ku mabwiriza ya guma mu rugo 
4Abarundi babiri mu Karere ka  Ngoma ImpunziNyakanga Bakekwagaho gucuruza ibiyobyabwenge ku buryo butemewe n’amategeko
5Abantu babiri i GasaboAbaturageKanamaBakekwagaho ibyaha
6Umuntu umwe i GasaboUmuturageKanamaYakekwagaho ubujura 
Inkomoko: Minisiteri y’ububanyi n’amahanga y’Amerika (2021). Raporo ya 2020 ku burenganzira bwa muntu mu Rwanda.

Iyi mbonerahamwe yo haruguru iragaragaza ukuntu abantu bapfuye bishwe n’inzego zishinzwe umutekano bashyigikiwe na guverinoma. Ikindi kibabaje cyane ni uko abapfuye bakekwagaho ibyaha nta n’umwe wahamwe n’ibyaha yakoze ngo ahabwe igihano cy’urupfu n’inzego zibishinzwe. Twibutse ko mu mategeko u Rwanda rugenderaho ubu nta gihano cy’urupfu giteganywamo. Ibi byabaye rero, bikozwe n’ubuyobozi bwirirwa bubeshya amahanga ngo bukora neza,  birababaje cyane kandi biteye agahinda.

Raporo yanagaragaje kandi ko hari abantu benshi baburiwe irengero bikozwe na Leta. Amakuru kuri iki kibazo yakusanyirijwe mu mbonerahamwe ikurikira.

Imbonerahamwe ya 2: Urutonde rw’ababuriwe irengero bikozwe na Leta muri 2020

NoAmazinaUmurimoItarikiIbisobanuro
1Venant AbayisengaUmurwanashyaka wa DALFA-UmurinziKamenaRIB ntiyatangaje ibyavuye mu iperereza kugeza ubu
2Eugene Ndereyimana Umurwanashyaka wa Perezida wa FDU-Inkingi2019Lata yananiwe kurangiza iperereza 
3Boniface TwagirimanaVisi Perezida wa FDU-Inkingi2018Lata yananiwe kurangiza iperereza
Inkomoko: Minisiteri y’ububanyi n’amahanga y’Amerika (2021). Raporo ya 2020 ku burenganzira bwa muntu mu Rwanda.

Nkuko bigaragara mu mbonerahamwe ya 2 iri haruguru, hari amakuru y’uko inzego z’ubutasi z’ingabo z’u Rwanda (RDF) zagize uruhare mu kubura, gufunga mu buryo butemewe n’amategeko n’iyicarubozo. Bamwe mu bunganira abaregwa bavuga ko abashinzwe iperereza muri RDF bajyanye abakekwaho kuba bararwanyaga Leta mu bigo by’imfungwa bitemewe, aho bakubiswe ndetse bakorerwa n’ubundi bugome bukabije hagamijwe kugirango babakuremo amakuru. Imiryango itegamiye kuri Leta ikorera imbere mu gihugu yatangaje ko idagabwa ubwigenge n’ubushobozi na leta bwo bakora iperereza ku ihohoterwa rikorwa n’inzego zishinzwe umutekano harimo no kubura kw’abantu.

Iyi raporo itangaza ko itegeko nshinga n’amategeko u Rwanda rugenderaho bibuza iyicarubozo, gukorerwa ubugome, cyangwa guteshwa agaciro ndetse no guhanwa ku buryo butemewe n’amategeko. Nyamara ariko, hari bahohotewe, abafunzwe na polisi cyangwa abasirikari cyangwa se abashinzwe iperereza. Imibereho yo muri za gereza yagaragaje ubucucike bukabije kandi hari hasanzwemo ikibazo cy’ibura ry’ibiribwa mu gihe umubare w’abari muri gereza wavuye kuri 52.000 mu 2015 ugera kuri 66.000 mu mwaka umwe gusa, ibyo bikaba byarongereye cyane ubucucike mu magereza.

Itegeko nshinga n’andi mategeko u Rwanda arugenderaho bibuza gufata no gufunga bitemewe n’amategeko, ariko inzego z’umutekano z’igihugu zihora zifata kandi zigafunga abantu uko zishakiye kandi mu buryo budakurikije amategeko. Imiryango itegamiye kuri Leta iharanira uburenganzira bwa muntu yabanje kuvuga ko abantu bakekwaho kuba bakorana n’ingabo za demokarasi ziharanira kubohora u Rwanda (Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda), Rwanda National Congress, ndetse n’indi mitwe y’inyeshyamba bafunzwe mu buryo bunyuranyije n’amategeko kandi bafungwa mu gihe kirekire, mu buryo bubi kandi butubahirije uburenganzira bwa muntu. Imbonerahamwe ya 3 ikurikira iratanga ishusho.

Imbonerahamwe ya 3 : Urutonde rw’abafashwe n’abafunzwe ku buryo butemewe muri 2020

NoAmazinaUmurimoItarikoIbisobanuro
1Paul RusesabaginaIntwari ya Filimi Hotel Rwanda31 KanamaAfunzwe ku buryo butemewe n’amategeko 
2Abayobozi 11 ba FDU-Inkingi Abatavuga rumwe n’ubutegetsi 2017Barindwi bahamwe n’icyaha bahanishwa igifungo kuva ku myaka ibiri kugeza ku myaka 12
3Abana benshi bo mumuhanda, abatembeyi, abakekwaho ibyaha byoroheje, n’abasabiriziAbaturageNtikizwi Benshi muribo baracyari muri gereza
Inkomoko: Minisiteri y’ububanyi n’amahanga ya Amerika (2021). Raporo ya 2020 ku burenganzira bwa muntu mu Rwanda.

Itegeko ry’u Rwanda risaba abayobozi gukora iperereza no kubona icyemezo mbere yo gufata ukekwaho icyaha. Polisi kandi ishobora gufunga abakekwaho ibyaha amasaha agera kuri 72 nta cyemezo cyo kumuta muri yombi. Abashinjacyaha bagomba gutanga ibirego byemewe mu minsi itanu batawe muri yombi. Polisi ishobora kandi gufunga abana bato byibuze iminsi 15 yo gufungwa by’agateganyo iyo bakurikiranyweho gusa ibyaha bitanga igihano cy’igifungo cy’imyaka itanu cyangwa irenga. Nyamara, abapolisi n’abashinjacyaha b’u Rwanda bakunze kwirengagiza izo ngingo maze bagaherana abantu rimwe na rimwe igihe kirekire kandi akenshi nta byaha baregwa, cyane cyane mu manza zishingiye ku mutekano. Inzego z’umutekano za Leta zafungiye mu ngo zabo bamwe bakekwaho ibyaha. Rimwe na rimwe, abapolisi bakoresha ibihano bitemewe n’amategeko igihe bamwe mu bakoze ibyaha bito babyemeye kandi bakanemera igihano bahawe na polisi, birimo nk’icyumweru cyo gufungwa cyangwa gutanga indishyi.

Ku bijyanye n’“Ubwisanzure bwo gutanga ibitekerezo”, itegeko nshinga riteganya ubwisanzure mu gutanga ibitekerezo ku binyamakuru “mu buryo bwagenwe n’amategeko,” nyamara guverinoma ibangamira cyane ubwo burenganzira. Abanyamakuru batangaje ko abayobozi ba leta babikomye, bbashyiraho iterabwoba, ndetse barafatwa igihe bagaragaje ibitekerezo byabo banenga guverinoma ku bibazo by’ingutu byugarije igihugu. RIB na RNP batangaje ko byatangije iperereza rishya ku byaha 55 byerekeye ingengabitekerezo ya jenoside guhera muri Gicurasi, n’ubwo baregwa nta mpamvu yagombaga gutuma bafatwa guhera ku itariki ya 27 Nzeri. Ibinyamakuru byinshi byigenga byahisemo kudatangaza inkuru zanditse bihitamo kuzinyuza kuri interineti. Nk’uko Komisiyo y’Itangazamakuru (RMC) ibitangaza, hari amaradiyo 35 (amaradiyo atandatu y’abaturage na radiyo 29 zigenga) na televiziyo zirenga 13. Ibitangazamakuru byigenga byatangaje ko uburyo bw’imikorere bugoye kandi ko abakora ubucuruzi badashobora kwamamaza ibicuruzwa byabo ku maradiyo ashobora kunenga guverinoma.

Inzobere mu itangazamakuru zatangaje ko guverinoma y’u Rwanda ikomeje gukoresha iterabwoba, ifatwa n’ihohoterwa kugira ngo icecekeshe ibitangazamakuru n’abanyamakuru. Umunyamakuru Jean Bosco Kabakura yaheze hanze y’igihugu nyuma yo guhunga mu 2018 kubera iterabwoba rishingiye ku gutangaza inyandiko isuzuma uruhare rw’abapolisi, ingabo, n’abasivili mu iraswa ry’impunzi zo mu nkambi ya Kiziba mu ntangiriro z’umwaka wa 2018. Abandi banyamakuru benshi barahunze mu myaka yashize baguma hanze y’igihugu. Kudakora iperereza cyangwa gukurikirana iterabwoba ryakorewe abanyamakuru bigaragaza ko Leta yiciriye urubanza. Ibibazo bikomeye by’uburenganzira bwa muntu byagaragariye  kandi ku bihano bishingiye kuri politiki bihabwa abantu bari hanze y’igihugu; no kubuza abantu kugira ruhare muri politiki.

Muri make, u Rwanda ruvugwa ko ari igihugu cya Republika ishingiye ku itegekonshinga aho ubutegetsi bushyirwaho n’abaturage kandi bukorera abaturage. Icyakora, dushingiye kuri raporo ya 2020 ku bikorwa byo guhonyora uburenganzira bwa muntu mu Rwanda yasohowe na Minisiteri y’ububanyi n’amahanga ya Leta zunze ubumwe z’Amerika, u Rwanda ni igihugu kitagendera ku amategeko, kiganjemo ihohoterwa ry’uburenganzira bwa muntu rikabije. Nk’uko umugani w’Abaturukiya ubivuga: “Iyo ihohoterwa ryinjiye mu nzu, amategeko n’ubutabera bisohoka binyuze mu muyoboro w’umwotsi.” Mu by’ukuri, mu Rwanda nta mategeko ahari cyangwa n’ahari arafifitse cyangwa ni nyirarubeshwa. Ubutegetsi bufitwe na Paul Kagame (FPR) kandi bukorera Paul Kagame (FPR) aho kugirango bukorere abaturage. Ese amaherezo azaba ayahe ?

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