Igisirikare cy’u Rwanda kigiye kuba intwaro nshya y’U Bufaransa muri Afrika?

Yanditswe na Arnold Gakuba

Iryavuzwe riratashye. Inkuru dukesha Ikinyamakuru “Mail & Guadian” iremeza ko Ubufaransa muri ibi bihe gikoresha igisirikare cya Paul Kagame mu nyungu zabwo ku butaka bw’Afrika. Byaje bite? Byanyuze mu zihe nzira? Iyi nkuru irabiva imuzingo.

Nk’uko mubyibuka, ku itariki ya 9 Nyakanga 2021, Leta ya Kigali yatangaje ko yohereje ingabo 1,000 (n’ubwo hari amakuru avuga ko zirenze uro mubare kure cyane) muri Mozambique kurwanya inyeshyamba zigaruriye Intara ya Cabo Delgado iherereye mu Majyaruguru y’icyo gihugu. Bidatinze, mu gihe cy’ukwezi kumwe gusa, ku itariki ya 8 Kanama 2021, ingabo z’u Rwanda zitangaza ko zigaruriye umujyi w’icyambu cya Mocímboa da Praia uri hafi y’inyanja, urimo ubutunzi bwinshi bwa peteroli icukurwa kandi igatunganywa n’isosiyete y’Abafaransa “Total Energies SE” ndetse n’iy’Amerika “Exxon Mobil”. Ku ubw’ibyo, Perezida wa Banki Nyafurika Itsura Amajyambere, Akinwumi Adesina, yatangaje, ku itariki ya 27 Kanama 2021, ko Total Energies SE izongera gutangira imirimo yayo yo gutunganya peteroli muri Cabo Delgado mu mpera z’umwaka wa 2022. 

Inyeshyamba zarwaniraga mu Ntara Cabo Delgado ubu zaburiwe irengero nyuma y’uko zambuka umupaka zikinjira muri Tanzaniya no mu mashyamba yegereye inyanja. Ubu butwari n’ishyaka bidasanzwe by’ingabo za Paul Kagame bukaba bwaribajijweho byinshi na benshi, banibaza impamvu y’uwo muhate wo kurwana nkundura urwo rugamba. Kugeza ubu u Rwanda runatangaza ko arirwo ruha ibikoresho ingabo zarwo ndetse n’ibindi zikeneye byose muri urwo rugamba, ko nta nkunga yindi rubona. 

Kuki ingabo z’u Rwanda arizo zatoranijwe kujya kurengera inyungu z’amasosiyete acukura peteroli muri Mozambique?

Igisubizo cy’iki kibazo  cyashakishirizwa mu byabaye mu mezi make yabanjirije kohereza ingabo z’u Rwanda muri Cabo Delgado muri Nyakanga 2021.

Inyeshyamba zagaragaye bwa mbere muri Cabo Delgado mu Kwakira kwa 2017. Mu myaka itatu yose, izo nyeshyamba zacengacenganye n’ingabo za Mozambique mbere yo kwigarurira Mocímboa da Praia muri Kanama umwaka ushize wa 2020. Ingabo za Mozambique zananiwe kwirukana izo nyeshyamba kugirango sosiyete za “Total Energies SE” na “Exxon Mobil” zishobore gusubukura ibikorwa byazo mu kibaya cya Rovuma, ku nkombe y’amajyaruguru ya Mozambique, ahavumbuwe peteroli muri Gashyantare 2010.

Minisiteri y’Ubutegetsi bw’Igihugu ya Mozambique yari yaragerageje gushaka uko yarangiza icyo kibazo maze ikodesha abacanshuro barimo Dyck Advisory Group y’Afrika y’Epfo, Frontier Services Group ya Hong Kong na Wagner Group y’Uburusiya ariko biba iby’ubusa, ahubwo ishoramari ry’amasosiyete yavuzwe haruguru rikomeza kuhadindirira. Mu rwego rwo gushaka umuti w’icyo kibazo, mu mpera za Kanama 2020, nibwo Total Energies SE na Leta ya Mozambique bashyize umukono ku masezerano yo gushyiraho umutwe w’umutekano uhuriweho n’impande zombi, wo kurengera ishoramari ry’iyo sosiyete. Birumvikana rero ko Ubutaransa bwagombaga kwigira hamwe aho uwo mutwe uzava.

Ikinyamakuru “Mail & Guadian” kivuga ko amakuru gikesha Maputo avuga ko icyo gihe, Perezida wa Mozambique Filipe Nyusi, yerekanye ko Total Energies SE ishobora gusaba guverinoma y’Ubufaransa kohereza ingabo kugira ngo zifashe mu kurinda umutekano mu Karere. Ibiganiro kuri iyi gahunda bikaba byarakomeje muri 2021. Bidatinze, ku itariki ya 18 Mutarama 2021, Minisitiri w’ingabo w’Ubufaransa, Florence Parly na mugenzi we muri Porutugali, João Gomes Cravinho, baganiriye kuri telefone, ku buryo ibihugu by’Iburengerazuba byagira uruhare mu kibazo cya Cabo Delgado. Kuri uwo munsi kandi, umuyobozi mukuru wa Total Energies SE, Patrick Pouyanné, yahuye na Perezida Filipe Nyusi na Minisitiri w’ingabo Jaime Bessa Neto ndetse n’uw’Ubutegetsi bw’Igihugu Amade Miquidade kugira ngo baganire kuri gahunda yo kurinda umutekano muri ako karere. Nyamara ariko nta kintu na kimwe gifatika cyavuye mu mubonano wabo. Guverinoma y’Ubufaransa ariko na none ntiyari yiteguye kwinjira muri icyo kibazo ku mugaragaro. Guhera ubwo nibwo hashakishijwe ubundi buryo Ubufaransa bwakwinjira mu kibazo ku buryo buziguye.

Umwe mu bayobozi bakuru b’i Maputo yatangarije “Mail & Guardian” ko muri Mozambique bazi neza ko Perezida w’Ubufaransa Emmanuel Macron yasabye ko ingabo z’u Rwanda zoherezwa muri Mozambique mu rwego rwo kurinda Cabo Delgado. Ingabo z’u Rwanda – zahawe imyitozo yihariye, zifite intwaro zihagije, zitewe inkunga n’ibihugu by’Iburengerazuba, zahawe ubudahangarwa bwo gukora icyo kiraka zititaye ku mategeko mpuzamahanga – kuko zari zaragaragaje ubushobozi mu bikorwa byakorewe muri Sudani y’Amajyepfo na Repubulika ya Centrafrique. Ng’uko uko ingabo za Paul Kagame zegukanye ikiraka cyo kurinda ibikorwa by’isosiyete Total Energies SE icukura peteroli mu Majyaruguru ya Mozambique.

Paul Kagame afitemo izihe nyungu?

Burya politiki zihisha byinshi. Paul Kagame yungukiye ubugira kenshi ku nyungu z’Abanyaburayi. 

Paul Kagame wayoboye u Rwanda kuva muri 1994 ku buryo buziguye, nyuma guhera mu 2000 akabikora ku buryo butaziguye, ubutegetsi bwe bwamye buvuga ko bugendera ku mahame ya demokarasi, ariko byahe birakajya. 

Ingabo z’u Rwanda zakoze amarorerwa muri Repubulika Iharanira Demokarasi ya Kongo (DRC). Raporo y’umushinga w’Umuryango w’Abibumbye (Mapping Report Project) yakozwe mu  mwaka wa 2010, ku ihohoterwa ry’uburenganzira bwa muntu muri Congo yerekanye ko ingabo z’u Rwanda zishe ibihumbi n’ibihumbagiza bitabarika by’abasivili b’Abanyekongo n’impunzi z’abanyawanda. Nyamara ariko Paul Kagame yahakanye ibyatangajwe muri iyo raporo y’Umuryango w’Abibumbye, ahubwo we yikomereza umuvuno uzamuhesha ishema n’icyubahiro.

Paul Kagame yakomeje guharanura ko Abafaransa bemera uruhare bagize muri jenoside yo muri 1994, yizeye ko amahanga azirengagiza ubwicanyi ndengakamere yakoreye mu burasirazuba bwa Congo. Muri urwo rwego, ku itariki ya 26 Werurwe 2021, umuhanga mu by’amateka Vincent Duclert yatangaje raporo y’impapuro 992 ku ruhare rw’Ubufaransa muri jenoside yo mu Rwanda. N’ubwo ariko iyo raporo itavuga ko Leta y’Ubufaransa yagize uruhare mu ihohoterwa, ntibyabujije Perezida Paul Kagame kuvuga ko igaragaza intambwe y’ingenzi iganisha ku kumvikana ku byabaye. Kuri we, guhamya Ubufaransa icyaha abifitemo Inyungu nyinshi cyane.

Muri urwo rwego kandi, ku itariki ya 19 Mata 2021, Leta y’u Rwanda yasohoye indi raporo, ku bufatanye n’ikigo cy’amategeko muri Amerika cyitwa Levy Firestone Muse, nayo igamije kwerekana uruhare rwa guverinoma y’Ubufaransa muri Jenoside yo muri 1994. Icyatangaje cyane, Abafaransa ntibahakanye amagambo akomeye agaragara muri iyi nyandiko. Emmanuel Macron wangaga kwemera uruhare bw’Ubufaransa mu ntambara yo muri Alijeriya, ntabwo yigeze arashya imigeri ku bya Paul Kagame. Impamvu ni uko hari icyo yari agamije yifuzaga kugeraho abifashijwemo na Paul Kagame.

Ubufaransa bwari bufite mugambi ki?

Umugambi wo kohereza ingabo z’u Rwanda muri Mozambique waba wararangirijwe i Paris, hagati ya Emmanuel Macron, Paul Kagame na Filipe Nyusi. 

Ku iyariki ya 28 Mata 2021, perezida Filipe Nyusi yasuye mugenzi we w’u Rwanda Paul Kagame. Icyo gihe, Filipe Nyusi yabwiye abanyamakuru ba Mozambique ko yaje kumenya neza ko u Rwanda rwagize uruhare rukomeye muri Repubulika ya Centrafrique n’uko u Rwanda rwari rufite ubushake bwo gufasha Mozambique mu kibazo cya Cabo Delgado. Twakwibaza niba ubwo bushake ari ubw’u Rwanda cyangwa niba rwari rwarabisabwe n’abandi? 

Ku itariki ya 18 Gicurasi 2021, Emmanuel Macron yakiriye inama i Paris, igamije gutera inkunga Afrika muri ibi bihe by’icyorezo cya Covid-19. Iyo nama yabaye ingirakamaro kuko yitabiriwe n’abayobozi benshi b’ibihugu by’Afrika, barimo na Paul Kagame na Filipe Nyusi, perezida w’Umuryango w’Ubumwe bw’Afrika Moussa Faki Mahamat, perezida wa Banki Nyafurika Itsura amajyambere Akinwumi Adesina, perezida wa Banki y’Iterambere ry’Afurika y’Iburengerazuba Serge Ekué n’umuyobozi Mukuru w’Ikigega Mpuzamahanga cy’Imari Kristalina Georgieva. N’ubwo ikibazo nyamukuru cyari icyo gufasha ibihugu by’Afrika kuva mu bukene, mu biganiro byihariye harangijwe umugambi w’Ubufaransa wo gukoreshwa ingabo z’u Rwanda mu nyungu z’Ubufaransa ziri muri Mozambique.

Nyuma y’icyumweru kimwe gusa, Emmanuel Macron avuye gusura u Rwanda n’Afrika y’Epfo, aho yamaze iminsi ibiri – ku ya 26 na 27 Gicurasi 2021 – i Kigali. Yagarutse ku byavuye muri raporo ya Duclert, aha u Rwanda inkingo 100 000 za Covid-19,  aho abaturage 4% bonyine aribo bari barabonye urukingo rwa mbere mu gihe yasuraga icyo gihugu. Mu ruzinduko rwe, igihe kinini yakimaze mu mwiherero na Paul Kagame. Bishoboka ko aribwo banonosoye neza umushinga w’uko igisirikare cya Paul Kagame cyahagararira Ubufaransa ku Mugabane w’Afrika. 

Ku itariki ya 28 Gicurasi 2021, ari kumwe na Perezida wa Afrika y’Epfo, Cyril Ramaphosa, Emmanuel Macron yavuze kuri Mozambique, avuga ko Ubufaransa bwiteguye kugira uruhare mu bikorwa byo gutabara muri Mozambique, ko ngo ariko bizatandukana n’uko ibihugu by’Umuryango w’iterambere ry’Afrika y’Amajyepfo (SADC) ndetse n’ibindi bihugu byo mu karere bizabigenza. Ntiyavuze ko azakoresha u Rwanda mu buryo bweruye, ariko nicyo yashakaga kuvuga. Ubufaransa bwageze ku cyo bwifuzaga kuko isosiyete ikomeye mu by’ingufu y’icyo gihugu ishobora gusubukura ishoramari ryayo muri Mozambique bidatinze.

Twanzure

Burya inyungu za politiki n’ubukungu zishohora gupfukirana izindi nyungu rusange. Ku bw’inyungu zo kwigarurira ubukungu busangwa muri bimwe mu bihugu by’Afrika, Emmanuel Macron yararuciye ararumira ku birego biregwa Paul Kagame muri Raporo Mapping, yirengagiza ibitutsi Paul Kagame yatutse Abafaransa, anemera buhumyi ibyatangajwe muri “Raporo Duclert”. Icyiyongereye kuri ibyo, Emmanuel Macron yafatanije na Paul Kagame ndetse na Filipe Nyusi maze birengagiza nkana amategeko Mpuzamahanga agenga kohereza ingabo mu kindi gihugu. Icyavuyemo ni uko, nyuma ya Centrafrique, ubu ingabo z’u Rwanda zihagarariye Ubufaransa muri Mozambique. Umugambi w’Ubufaransa kuri Afrika urimo uragenda ugerwaho. Ngayo ng’uko! 

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