Inzara iranuma mu mpunzi ziba muri Uganda: Ni iyihe mpamvu nyamukuru y’icyo kibazo?  

Yanditswe na Arnold Gakuba

Uganda yahaye ubuhungiro impunzi zirenga miliyoni imwe n’ibihumbi magana atanu (1,500,000). Abagera ku bihumbi mirongo inane (80,000) bangana hafi na 6% baba kandi bakorera muri Kampala aho baba mu buzima bwo kwirwanaho. Izo mpunzi nta bufasha na buke zihabwa ngo hashingiwe ku itegeko rya Leta ya Uganda rigenga impunzi ziba mu mijyi.

Kugeza ubu, ikibazo gikomereye cyane impunzi ziba mu mujyi wa Kampala ni inzara ndetse no kubona ubwishyu bw’amacumbi. Kubera ko Ishami ry’Umuryango w’Abibumbye ryita ku mpunzi (UNHCR) nta mfashanyo riha impunzi zo mu mijyi, imwe mu miryango itegamiye kuri Leta irimo n’amadini igerageza kureba uko yafasha bamwe mu mpunzi zugarijwe n’inzara kuruta izindi. Nyamara ariko, ubufasha zihabwa ngo ni nk’igitonyanga mu nyanja ugereranije n’ibibazo zifite kandi nabwo ntibugera kuri bose buhabwa igice gito cyane cy’izo mpunzi. 

Ikibazo cy’imirire mu mpunzi zo muri Uganda ntigifitwe gusa n’iziba mu mijyi. Ubuzima bw’impunzi ziba muri Uganda muri rusange ubu buragenda burushaho kuba bubi. Impamvu nyamukuru yatewe n’igabanuka ry’amafaranga yahabwaga impunzi kugirango zishobore kugura ibyo zikeneye birimo ibiryo, imyenda n’ibindi bakeneye by’ubuzuma bwa buri munsi.

Mu kwezi kw’Ukuboza 2020, Ishami ry’Umuryango w’Abibumbye ryita ku Biribwa (WFP/PAM) ryatangaje ko rigiye kongera kugabanya amafaranga yagenerwaga impunzi zo muri Uganda buri kwezi. Impamvu nyamukuru itangazwa na WFP ngo ni ukugabanuka kw’inkunga. Ibyo bikaba byarateganywaga ko bigomba gutangira muri Gashyantare 2021, aho impunzi zagombaga gusigarana gusa 60 ku ijana by’amafaranga zabonaga. 

Nyamara ariko El-Khidir Daloum, uhagarariye WFP muri Uganda arabona icyorezo cya Koronavirusi kitagombye kuba urwitwazo ngo isi yirengagize impunzi muri Ibi bihe bitoroshye. Arongeraho ati “Twashimye abaterankunga byafashije mu bikorwa by’impunzi muri 2019 ariko ubu ntitugishobiye guha impunzi iby’ibanze kandi abakennye kurusha abandi barakomeza kuhababarira kuko tukigabanya ubufasha“. Uwo muyobozi yakomeje avuga ko umwaka wa 2020 wabaye ingorabahizi ku mpunzi kuko ubufasha bahabwaga bwagabanutseho 30 ku ijana (30%) muri Mata bikaba byarahuriranye na Guma mu rugo. Na none muri Gashyantare hongeye kugabanywaho icumi ku ijana (10%). Ishami ry’Umuryango w’Abibumbye ryita ku Biribwa ubu rikeneye amadolari miliyoni 95.8 kugirango bahereze impunzi zo muri Uganda imfashanyo yuzuye mu mezi atandatu ari imbere. 

Kuva muri uku kwezi kw’Ukwakira 2021, imfashanyo zihabwa impunzi muri Uganda zongeye kugabanywa ku buryo bukurikira: mu nkambi za Bidibidi, Imvepi, Lobule, Palorinya na Rhino zifatwa nk’izifite ibibazo kurusha izindi, impunzi zizituyemo zizajya zihabwa 70% y’ibiryo bagenerwaga. Mu nkambi za Adjumani, Kiryandongo na Palabek zifatwa nk’izifite ibibazo bigereranije, impunzi zizituyemo zizajya zihabwa 60% y’imfashanyo y’ibiryo zari zigenewe. Mu nkambi za Kyaka II, Nakivake, Kyangwali, Oruchinga na Rwamwanja zifatwa nk’izifite ibibazo byoroheje, impunzi zibamo zizagabanirizwaho 40% ku mfashanyo z’ibiryo zahabwaga. 

Kugabanya imfashanyo zihabwa impunzi bikaba bifite ingaruka myinshi cyane cyane iz’imirire ku bagore, abana n’abasaza kuko bafite ubushobozi buke bwo kwirwanaho ngo babone ikibatunga. Ibyo bikaba byatuma bahura n’ibibazo bitandukanye birimo n’uburwayi kubera intege nke z’imibiri yabo ndetse bikaba byabaviramo n’urupfu. 

Kugabanya imfashanyo kuri 30 ku ijana ndetse na gahunda ya Guma mu rugo byatumye inzara yiyongera mu nkambi z’impuzi 13 ndetse ni mu mpunzi ziba mu mijyi harimo n’umujyi wa Kampala nk’uko byagaragaye mu bushakashatsi bwakozwe ku mirire. Ishami ry’Umuryango w’Abibumbye ryita ku Biribwa (WFP) rikaba risaba Leta ya Uganda gufasha impunzi kugira uburenganzira muri serivisi zihabwa abanyagihugu kugirango zishobore guhangana n’ikibazo cy’imibereho cyane cyane icy’imirire. Ku rundi ruhande, Urwego Rwita ku Bibazo by’Impunzi muri Uganda (CRRF) rukaba rusaba umuryango mpuzamahanga kwita ku kibazo cy’impunzi kugirango borohereze Leta ya Uganda. Hakenewe ubufasha bw’inyongera kuri Leta ya Uganda  kubera umubare munini w’impunzi yakiriye kugirango ishobore gukataza mu iterambere. Ibi byazafasha kwinjiza impunzi ziba mu mijyi muri gahunda ya Leta y’iterambere ngo nazo zishobore guhangana n’ikibazo cy’ubukene kizugarije.

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