Rwanda: Uruhare rwa FPR muri Jenoside

Patrick de Saint-Exupéry

“Indorerwamo y’ubwicanyi bwakorewe abahutu kuva muri 1990 kugeza ubu.”

Yanditswe na Arnold Gakuba

Ikinyamakuru The Rwandan cyabasomeye inyandiko ya Marc le Pape na Jean-Hervé Bradol basohoye ku itariki ya 30 Werurwe 2021 bise ‘’Les ‘disparus’ du Congo-Zaire, 1996-1997. La question des massacres de réfugiés rwandais hutus en République Démocratiques du Congo’’ ugenekereje mu Kinyarwanda ni ‘’Abatikiriye muri Congo-Zayire, 1996-1997. Ikibazo cy’ubwicanyi bw’impunzi z’Abahutu muri Repubulika Iharanira Demokarasi ya Kongo’’ bagendeye ku gitabo cya Patrick de Saint-Exupéry cyitwa ‘’La Traversée – Une odyssée au cœur de l’Afrique’’ ugenekereje mu Kinyarwanda ‘’Kwambukiranya- Inkuru yo mu mutima w’afrika’’ cyasohotse ku itariki ya 4 Werurwe 2021. Intego nyamukuru ya Marc le Pape na Jean-Hervé Bradol kwari ukugaragaza ukwivuguruza gukubiye mu nyandiko nyinshi (inkuru n’ibitabo) byanditswe na Patrick de Saint-Exupéry, umunyamakuru w’umwuga wakurikiraniye hafi ibyabaye mu Rwanda cyane cyane ibijyanye n’ihohoterwa ry’uburenganzira bwa muntu – kandi akaba yaranditse kuri jenoside yakorewe abatutsi n’ubwicanyi bwakorewe abahutu yavugaga ko ari jenoside ya kabiri – nyamara nyuma y’imyaka 24 akaba atangiye kwivuguruza. Dusangiye igitekerezo na Marc le Pape na Jean-Hervé Bradol kandi turibaza cyane kuri iyi myitwarire ya Patrick de Saint-Exupéry yo kuvuguruza ukuri yemeje kandi akagushimangira.

Mu gihe u Rwanda rwitegura kwibuka ku nshuro ya 27 jenoside yakorewe abatutsi, ikibazo cya jenoside yakorewe abahutu kiracyagibwaho impaka ndende. Dushingiye ku makuru yanditswe na Marc le Pape na Jean-Hervé Bradol, kandi akaba ari no mu nyandiko za Patrick de Saint-Exupéry, biratwereka umugambi wacuzwe kuva kare wo gutsemba abahutu nk’uko ubwicanyi bwakorewe impunzi z’Abahutu muri Zayire (Repubulika Iharanira Demokarasi ya Kongo) bubigaragaza.

Abanditsi batandukanye barimo na Patrick de Saint-Exupéry banditse byinshi kuri jenoside yakorewe abatutsi yo muri 1994. Muri 1994, Patrick de Saint-Exupéry yasohoye inkuru igira iti: “Amabagiro mu Rwanda“, iyi nkuru ikaba yaratumye amenyekana cyane kandi yemerwa nk’umwe mu nzobere zikurikirana ibijyanye n’iyubahirizwa ry’uburenganzira bwa muntu karere k’ibiyaga bigari by’Afurika yo hagati, kuva muri 1994 kugeza ubu. Nyamara ariko, Marc le Pape na Jean-Hervé Bradol bibajije impamvu yatumye Patrick de Saint-Exupéry asohora iki gitabo yise  ‘’La Traversée – Une odyssée au cœur de l’Afrique’’. Baribaza impamvu yandika urwanya ko hatabayeho jenoside yakorewe abahutu nyamara yarabyiyemereye mu nyandiko ze zitandukanye nyuma y’uko yabonaga ibyaberega muri Zayire.  Mu nyandiko ze, Patrick de Saint-Exupéry yemeje ko ‘’ubwicanyi bwibasiye Abahutu bwakorewe muri Kongo mu 1996-1997 ari jenoside ya kabiri, isa n’iyakorewe abatutsi mu Rwanda mu 1994.” Ibi byatera benshi kwibaza niba nawe kandi yaguzwe na Leta ya Kagame nk’uko yaguze Dr. Michelle Martin wemeye gushinja ibinyoma mu rubanza rwa Paul Rusesabagina. Marcellin Cikwanine, mu nyandiko ye, we atekereza ko Patrick de Saint-Exupéry yabikoze kubera ubwoba afitiye Leta ya Kigali. Ese ni iki kihishe inyuma y’ibi byose? Ukuri ni uko ubutegetsi bwa Paul Kagame burimo gukora ibishoboka byose kugirango buburizemo ibyaha bwakoze byibasiye inyokomuntu kuva muri 1990 kugeza ubu.

N’ubwo Marc le Pape na Jean-Hervé Bradol nabo batemera ko habayeho jenoside yakorewe abahutu, ariko bibaza impamvu Patrick de Saint-Exupéry yakwiyemeza gutesha agaciro ibitabo n’inyandiko ze zose yanditse kandi agatangaza mu myaka 24 yose. Nk’uko Marc le Pape na Jean-Hervé Bradol babisobanura, ngo FPR yateye ivuye muri Uganda iza gufata ubutegetsi bwa Kigali byatumye abantu benshi berekeza muri Zayire kandi ko muri Werurwe-Mata 1995, abaturage b’abanyarwanda barenga miliyoni bari bari mu nkambi z’impunzi muri Kongo. Bakomeza bavuga ko bazi ko abayobozi ba FPR bagize uruhare mu 1996 mu bikorwa byo gusenya izo nkambi. Ibi birasobanura neza ko gusenya inkambi z’impunzi byateguwe kandi bishyirwa mu bikorwa na FPR. Urebye rero ibyo FPR yakoreye abahutu kuva muri 1990 za Byumba (Umutara) n’ahandi kugeza mu 1994 – umwaka waranzwe n’ubwicanyi bukabije abasirikari bari aba FPR bakoreye abahutu, uku gusenya inkambi z’impunzi nta mpuhwe zarimo ahubwo wari umugambi wabo wo gukomeza gahunda ya FPR wo gutsemba abahutu. Nari mpari kandi nabonye n’amaso yanjye ubwicanyi bwakorewe abana, abagore n’abagabo mu mashyamba ya Masisi na Walikale. Ndemeza neza ko abahohotewe bari abaturage b’abasivili batari abasirikare nk’uko bikunze kuvugwa n’abakingira ikibaba abasirikari ba RPF bashaka kuyobya uburari ku bwicanyi ndengakamere bakoze.

Mu by’ukuri, ndemeza ko ibyo nabonye byabaye muri 1996-1997 muri Zayire, igihe inkambi z’impunzi zasenywaga byari “guhiga umuntu“. Imiryango myinshi itegamiye kuri Leta ivuga ko hapfuye abarenga 200.000, nyamara ariko umubare w’abapfuye uri kure cyane uwo mubare. Nanjye narokotse kenshi ubwo bwicanyi kandi nitegereje muri 1994, ubwo abasirikari ba FPR bigaruriraga igice twari dutuyemo mu Rwanda – bafatanije n’abatutsi baho – bakoze urutonde rw’Abahutu bagomba gupfa muri buri serire (urwego rw’ubuyobozi rwari hasi icyo gihe) ndetse  no ku rwego rw’umurenge. Abari bafite izi ntonde bashyiragaho ikimenyetso ka ” √’’ imbere y’izina ry’abo babaga bamaze kwica. Ese koko ubwo si uburyo bugaragaza ko kwica abahutu byategurwaga?

Guhera muri 1990, FPR yari ifite umugambi wo kwica Abahutu. Ibi bisobanurwa n’amagambo amwe n’amwe yagiye avugwa n’ubuyobozi bwa gisirikare bwa FPR. Mu 1997, umusirikare mukuru w’u Rwanda wari muri Kivu y’epfo yatangarije MSF na UNHCR aya magambo: ”Abari mu ishyamba bose tubafata nk’abanzi bacu” (MSF, Raporo y’ubutumwa bw’ubushakashatsi ku Amajyepfo ya Kivu, Mata 1997, ububiko bwa MSF). Aya magambo yayatangaje abizi kuki yashakaga kuvuga ko iyo bica abantu batarobanura. Aya magambo kandi yemejwe ahantu henshi: amakuru y’ubushakashatsi hamwe n’ibarura byatanzwe na UNHCR, imiryango itegamiye kuri Leta itabara imbabare, amakuru yatangajwe kandi akavugwa muri make na IRIN (ikinyamakuru cyo mu karere cyasohowe kuva mu Kwakira 1996 n’ishami ry’umuryango w’abibumbye ryita ku bantu), ububiko bwa MSF i Paris , inkuru z’abanyamakuru (harimo n’iz’ikinyamakuru New York Times), raporo z’imiryango iharanira uburenganzira bwa muntu nka Amnesty na Human Rights Watch, ubuhamya bw’abanyamadini. Mu by’ukuri, abo bose bahamya ko habayeho ubwicanyi bwateguwe bwakorewe abahutu muri Zayire. Marc le Pape na Jean-Hervé Bradol bemeza ko bari bazi kuva muri 1996-1997 ko ububiko bwa MSF bwerekanye ko habaye ubwicanyi bwakorewe abahutu. None, murumva abo banditsi bafite uburenganzira bwo guhakana ko habayeho jenoside yakorewe abahutu? 

Patrick de Saint-Exupéry yamaze igihe kinini atangaza byinshi ku ihohoterwa by’’ikiremwa muntu byashyigikiwe n’abashakashatsi benshi. Nyuma ya 1997, inyandiko ze nyinshi n’ibitabo by’ubushakashatsi mpuzamahanga byibanze ku ihohoterwa rikorerwa impunzi. Ibi byose byatumye ibiro by’umuryango w’abibumbye ushinzwe uburenganzira bw’ikiremwamuntu utegura kandi utangaza raporo y’umushinga wise ‘Mapping Project‘ ‘wavugaga ku ‘ihohoterwa rikabije ry’uburenganzira bwa muntu n’amategeko mpuzamahanga arengera ikiremwamuntu’ byakozwe hagati ya 1993 na 2003 muri DRC. Kuva mu Kwakira 2008 kugeza Gicurasi 2009, abashakashatsi bagera kuri makumyabiri b’Umuryango w’Abibumbye bakoze muri icyo gikorwa kugira ngo bamenye amakuru, babone inyandiko, bahabwe ubuhamya ku miterere, uburemere n’umubare w’ibyaha n’ihohoterwa byakozwe. Igice cy’umutwe wa kabiri w’iyi raporo (urup. 82-123, §191-268) kivuga ku “bitero ku mpunzi z’Abahutu“. Ibi byose byerekana ukuri ku byaha byibasiye inyokomuntu byakozwe n’ubutegetsi bwa Kagame kuva 1990 kugeza na n’ubu.

Marc le Pape na Jean-Hervé Bradol bavuga ko Patrick de Saint-Exupéry yashoje inyandiko ze zabanje avuga ko abasirikari b’ingabo za FPR muri Zayire (Repubulika Iharanira Demokarasi ya Kongo) bakoze jenoside mu buryo bwinshi butandukanye. Ku bw’ibyo, nta mpamvu nimwe babona yatuma mu gitabo cye yise ‘’La Traversée – Une odyssée au cœur de l’Afrique’’ ahindura imvugo. Ukuri kuguma ari ukuri n’ubwo benshi baguhakana. Ariko aho bigeze noneho, ukuri kuri jenoside yakorewe abahutu kugiye kujya ahagaragara. Alfred Capus niwe wagize ati: “Guhakana ni ukwemeza” kandi “Kugaragaza ni uguhakana ibyo umuntu yemera” nk’uko Emile-Auguste Chartier, uzwi ku izina rya Alain yabivuze. Ese ko u Rwanda rwibuka buri mwaka – muri Mata – jenoside yakorewe abatutsi ; iyakorewe abahutu mu Rwanda no muri Zayire (Repubulika Iharanira Demokarasi ya Kongo) yo izatangira kwibukwa ryari? Amaso tuyahanze u Rwanda n’isi yose. 

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