U RWANDA MU MAYIRA ABIRI MURI 2017: ALAIN PATRICK NDENGERA

Mu minsi ishize twakunze kumva abanyamakuru babaza prezida wa republika y’u Rwanda nyakubahwa prezida Paul Kagame niba azongera kwiyamamaza indi mandat nyuma ya 2017. Iki kibazo kuko cyagarutsweho inshuro zirenga 10 kibazwa n’abanyamakuru bo mu Rwanda ndetse n’abo mu mahanga, ku giti cyanjye numva abanyarwanda dukwiye kugisesengura kuko ni kimwe mu ipfundo rikomeye ku gihugu nk’u Rwanda kuko muri 2017 u Rwanda ruzaba ruri mu mayira abiri kandi uburyo tuzakata iryo korosi rya 2017 nibyo bizaduha ikizere cyaho igihugu cyerekeza.

Ku bwanjye mbona mbere yo kwibaza uko bizagenda muri 2017 twari dukwiye kwibaza ibibazo bibiri bikomeye kandi by’ingenzi: Igihugu cyacu kirava he? Igihugu cyacu kirajyahe? Mu gusubiza iki kibazo nta marangamutima ni nabyo bizadufasha kumenya ndetse no kumva neza uko bizagenda muri 2017. Mu gusubiza ibyo bibazo byombi umuntu yabisubiza mu magambo macye: Igihugu cyacu kivuye mu mahano ya genocide, uyu munsi kiri kwiyuba kandi aho tugana birasaba umutekano uhagije ngo gahunda zose zishobore kugerwaho zaba iz’iterambere rijyanye n’imibereho myiza y’abaturage bose ndetse na demokarasi isesuye.

  1. Kuba prezida w’u Rwanda bisaba izihe conditions ?

Mu by’ukuri abantu bamwe bakora politiki bashyigikiye ubutegetsi cyangwa bari muri opposition hari igihe bumva ko kuba prezida w’u Rwanda ari ibintu bishoboka ku muntu wese. Njye siko mbibona. Ku bwanjye mbona hari réalités twirengangiza nyamara abantu bagerageje kuzisobanukirwa hari byinshi byarushaho kumvikana ndetse n’ibyo abantu bibaza bikagira icyerekezo gifatika.

Kuyobora igihugu nk’u Rwanda muri iki gihe tugezemo bisaba ko umukuru w’igihugu aba afite capacité zo guhuza ingabo z’igihugu, inzego z’iperereza (iz’imbere mu gihugu no hanze) kandi akanagira soutien politique ikomeye bivuze aturuka mu ishyaka rya politiki rikomeye ryamutanzeho umukandida. Ibyo bintu bitatu umuntu utabifiteho contrôle nta nubwo yakagombye no kurota kuba prezida w’u Rwanda uyu munsi.

Ingero sizo zibuze twafatira nko mu Burundi aho umukuru w’igihugu witwa Ndadaye wigeze gutorwa afite contrôle imwe muri izo eshatu navuze hejuru ariyo soutien politique yonyine. Ndadaye yakomokaga mu ishyaka rya politiki rikomeye ryitwa Frodebu ariko adafite contrôle kuri armée no ku nzego z’iperereza. Uko byamugendekeye twese twarabibonye. Iyi ni réalité yo muri Afrika kandi ni uko bizakomeza kumera no mu myaka 10 cyangwa irenze iri imbere.

Byaragaragaye ko iyo hari umu prezida wujuje izo conditions eshatu igihugu kigira umutekano. Iyo igihugu gifite umutekano ni naho n’ibindi byose byubakirwaho tuvuge nk’iterambere kuko aba investisteurs bazana imari yabo iyo igihugu gitekanye, niho imibereho myiza y’abaturage ifata indi intera abaturage bakava mu bukene bakiteza imbere, nibwo bishoboka kubaka institutions zikomeye ndetse ninabwo bishoboka kubakira demokarasi irambye hejuru y’uwo mutekano n’izo institutions zikomeye.

Ibi iyo tubicuritse tugahera kuvuga ngo turashaka demokrasi nta mutekano uhari cyangwa tutarubaka institutions zikomeye, cyangwa umuturage ataragira imibereho myiza de base tuvuge atarabona ikimutunga we n’umuryango we, ataragira inzu ye n’umuryango we, yohereze abana mu ishuri ndetse agire imibereho myiza yiteze imbere niho usanga byose bihinduka umuyonga , igihugu kigacura imiborogo hakaba intambara z’urudaca bitewe nuko abantu batazi aho igihugu kiva naho kijya. Igihugu nk’u Rwanda kivuye mu mwobo hari etape kigomba gucamo mbere yo kugera kuri demokarasi isesuye. Izi etape ariko nizo ku gihugu kivuye mu bibazo bikomeye nk’ibyo u Rwanda rwanyuzemo. Ntitwazikoresha ku bindi bihugu byose bidahuje amateka n’u Rwanda:

  1. Etape ya mbere: Umutekano

Birakwiye ko tumenya étapes zo kugera kuri demokarasi. Ndazisubiramo habanza étape ya mbere nakwita la stabilisation, aho umuyobozi ufite contrôle ku ngabo z’igihugu, ku nzego z’umutekano ndetse ukomoka mu ishyaka rikomeye ryamutanzeho umukandida afata destinée z’igihugu akagiha umutekano mu gihe runaka, nuko igihugu cyamara kugira umutekano kikaba ariyo nzira yonyine yo kwinjira mu zindi étapes

  1. Etape ya kabili: Iterambere n’imibereho myiza y’abaturage

Muri iyi etape ya kabiri nibwo abaturage bamaze kwizera umutekano batangira kwitabira ibikorwa by’amajyambere ndetse bakanashora imari yabo. Muri iyi étape ni naho abashoramari bazana ifaranga ritubutse mu gihugu bagashinga ibikorwa by’amajyambere bityo abaturage bakabona imirimo ndetse nabo bashoramari bagatanga imisoro igihugu kikunguka.

  1. Etape ya gatatu: Kubaka institutions zikomeye

Kuri ino etape niho igihugu gishyiraho inkingi zikomeye mu nzego zose ku buryo usanga hari séparation de pouvoir, usanga hari za inzego zigenzura za audit, inzego za ombudsman mu bigo byose, inzego zirwanya ruswa, inzego zishinzwe amatora, etc… izi institutions zose iyo zimaze gushinga imizi kandi ziri hejuru y’abantu bose nibwo haza etape ya kane

  1. Etape ya kane : Demokarasi

Iyo izi institutions zimaze kwubakwa kandi zarashinze imizi, nibwo demokarasi yubakwa igashinga imizi yubakiye hejuru y’izo institutions. Kuko abaturage n’abayobozi baba baramaze gufata umuco wo kubaha institutions ku buryo demokarasi igerwaho vuba. Kandi kuko abaturage baba bamaze kujijuka usanga demokarasi igendera kuri majorité des idées aho kugendera kuri majorité ethnique.

  1. Uyu munsi u Rwanda tugeze kuri étape ya kangahe muri izi enye ?

Gusubiza iki kibazo ninabyo nizadufasha kumva neza uko bizagenda muri 2017. Niba u Rwanda tukiri kuri etape ya mbere yo gushaka umutekano kubera abantu bagishaka gutera u Rwanda, uyu munsi tukaba tucyumva za grenade ziterwa mu gihugu zikica abaturage, cyangwa tukumva amashyaka n’imitwe y’ingabo ashaka gufatanya n’ibihugu byo hanze ngo atere u Rwanda, nta kibuza ko abayobozi b’u Rwanda bazagumisha alerte kuri etape ya mbere.

Niba etape ya mbere itarasobanuka neza rero nubwo igihugu cyaba cyarinjiye muri étape ya kabili cyangwa iya gatatu usanga mu gihe nta mutekano uhari cyangwa hari menace ku busugire bw’igihugu buri gihe haba hakenewe umuyobozi ufite contrôle kuri za points eshatu navuze haruguru.

No muri 2017 ni cyo kibazo tuzibaza : Umuperezida ushaka kujyaho azatwizeza umutekano ? Natawuduha se tuzagera ku iterambere rirambye gute ? Tuzubaka institutions zikomeye gute ? Niba se tudafite institutions zikomeye tuzagera kuri demokrasi irambye gute ?

Niyo mpamvu njye ndangiza nemeza ko muri 2017 mu guhitamo tuzareba umuyobozi ushobora kuduha umutekano kuko niwo fondation w’ibintu byose (iterambere, imibereho myiza ndetse na demokarasi irambye). Kuzana umutekano urambye twasanze ko bisaba ko umuyobozi aba afite contrôle ku ngabo, ku nzego z’iperereza ndetse akanagira soutien politique aturuka mu ishyaka rikomeye ryamutanzeho umu candidat. Umuntu utujuje ibi byangombwa nta nagomba no kurota avuga ko ashaka kutuyobora muri 2017 kuko azatudindiza tugahera kuri étape ya mbere ku buryo mandat ya 7 ans yamubera imfabusa no kudindiza igihugu arwana n’ibibazo bya sécurite interne et externe aho kutugeza kuri etape ya gatatu n’iya kane.

Uyu munsi prezida Kagame yujuje izi conditions eshatu navuze hejuru kuko izo ngabo yaziyoboye igihe kirekire azizi, ndetse yanakoze imirimo y’iperereza ku buryo azi neza uko rigenda ubu mu gihugu (external and internal), ikindi yatanzwe n’ishyaka FPR rikomeye kandi riyobora igihugu. Ahubwo abantu aho kumubaza ko aziyongeza indi mandat bari bakwiye kumubaza bati kuva uri umuyobozi etape ya mbere yarashobotse , etape ya kabiri irashoboka cyangwa iri en cours, tuti wabigenza ute ngo igihugu ukinjize muri etape ya gatatu yo gushyiraho institutions zikomeye ziri hejuru y’abantu ? Iyo étape nayigeraho azaba asigiye umurage ufatika u Rwanda nundi uzamukurikira azasanga inzira zaraharuwe.

Ariko se muri 2017 bizaba byagezweho kandi tucyumva ko hakiri menace kuri etape ya mbere y’umutekano ? Kandi twabonye ko iyo umutekano ubuze n’ibindi byose ntibigerwaho. Ku bwanjye mbona u Rwanda aho ruhagaze uyu munsi na administration rufite rukeneye nk’indi myaka icumi kugera muri 2024 ngo tugere kuri etape ya gatatu n’iya kane ku byuryo busesuye. Dore abavuga ibya mandat kuyongera cyangwa kuyirekera uko iri bajye bagira aho bahera hafatika bahereye kuri izi etape enye nasobanuye haruguru aho kuvugira mu cyuka no mu marangamutima.

Alain Patrick Ndengera A.K.A Tito Kayijamahe